Classification of institutional units for R&D purposes (Frascati institutional Sectors)
Basic Bibliographic Information
To Be Determined
OECD (2015), Frascati Manual 2015: Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development, Chapter 3, The Measurement of Scientific, Technological and Innovation Activities, OECD Publishing, Paris.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Available Languages (besides English):
Fully available in all of the languages above
Purpose of the Classification
2.9 Science, technology and innovation
Characterise and classify R&D performing and funding indtitutions.
Used for collecting and reporting data on R&D
Statisticians, economists, analysts and policy makers in the area of R&D, science, technology and innovation
Concept Being Classified:
economic activities, research
R&D units/institutions generally at the enterprise
Be compatible with the SNA institutional sectors while appropriately characterising R&D units/institutions, in particular by identifying the higher education sector separately for policy purposes.
Relationships to Other International Classifications:
Major Differences (Scope, Structure, and Concepts):
Approximate correspondence between Frascati and SNA institutional sectors
Only applies to R&D performing and funding institutions
The classification is compatible with the SNA institutional classification with the exception of the higher education sector, which is identified as a separate sector because of its prominence in R&D activities. The definition of the higher education sector is partly based on ISCED 2011.
Only pertains to R&D activity
Definition of Structure:
Number of Items:
There is only one structure level with 4 items which are the business enterprise sector (BE), the government sector (GOV), the higher education sector (HE) and the private non-profit sector (PNP). When international flows of R&D are measured, the rest of the world is also considered as a sector. While no other structure level exist, other general classifications are considered applicable to all classified institutional units, in particular the classification by main economic activity (ISIC rev.4) and the Field of Research and Development (FORD) classification.
Criteria for Definition of Levels:
Chronology of revisions/versions of the classification:
Title or Version Number:
Official Adopting Entity:
OECD Committee for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP) and OECD Committee for Statistics and Statistical Policy (CSSP)
OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators (NESTI), which is under the CSTP
Reason for Latest Revision:
Take into account changes stemming from the latest revisions of the SNA and the ISCED, plus other considerations linked to the institutional organisation of R&D activities more generally
In addition to the reason mentioned above: In particular with respect to teminology used, improved guidelines on how to classify units/institutions with discussion of main borderline cases.
Coding Index Available:
Training Materials and Other Documents:
Agency / Office:
+331 4524 8749
+331 4524 6258
2 rue André Pascal
The name of the classification is not exactly an 'official' name but the naming of the classification in the related chapter of the Frascati Manual.
ISBN 978-92-6423880-0 (print)
ISBN 978-926423901-2 (PDF)
The revision website is a community space which is accesible for NESTI delegates only: https://community.oecd.org/community/frascati-review (not open to external public)