A note to the reader

Global indicator framework for the follow-up and review of the Sustainable Development Goals

The information presented in this report is based on the latest available data (as of May 2019) on selected indicators in the global indicator framework1 for the Sustainable Development Goals, which was developed by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) and adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017 (see resolution 71/313, annex). The global indicator framework is used to review progress at the global level.

The choice of indicators for this report does not represent a prioritization of targets, since all goals and targets are equally important. The composition of regions and subregions in this report is based on United Nations geographical divisions, with some modifications necessary to create, to the extent possible, groups of countries for which a meaningful analysis could be carried out.2

Data sources and the basis for this analysis

The values for most of the indicators presented in this report represent regional and/or subregional aggregates. In general, the figures are weighted averages of country data, using the reference population as a weight, and calculated from national data compiled by international agencies, according to their respective mandates and specialized expertise, from national statistical systems. The national data compiled by the international agencies are often adjusted for comparability and, where lacking, are estimated. As decided by the Statistical Commission and in accordance with Economic and Social Council resolution 2006/6, estimates used to compile the global indicators should be produced in full consultation with national statistical authorities. The criteria and mechanisms for validation by national statistical authorities are outlined in the report of the IAEG-SDGs3 and were endorsed by the Statistical Commission at its fiftieth session. 4

The collaboration between national statistical systems and regional and international organizations is essential for the effective flow of internationally comparable data. Such mechanisms can be improved by strengthening the coordination function of national statistical offices in national statistical systems.

A database of available global, regional and country data and metadata for the SDG indicators accompanying this report is maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division and is available at unstats.un.org/sdgs. Owing to the emergence of new data and revised methodologies, data series presented in this report may not be comparable with previous data series.

Although the aggregate figures presented in this report are a convenient way to track progress, the situation of individual countries within a given region, and across population groups and geographical areas within a country, may vary significantly from regional averages. Presenting aggregate figures for all regions also obscures another reality: the lack, in many parts of the world, of adequate data to assess national trends and to inform and monitor the implementation of development policies.

Investing in data for the full implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals

Quality data are vital for governments, development partners, international organizations, civil society, the private sector and the general public to make informed decisions and to ensure an accurate review of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Tracking progress on the SDGs requires the collection, processing, analysis and dissemination of an unprecedented amount of data and statistics at subnational, national, regional and global levels, including those derived from official statistical systems and from new and innovative data sources.

Many national statistical systems across the globe face serious challenges in this regard. As a result, accurate and timely information about critical aspects of people’s lives is unknown. Numerous groups and individuals remain “invisible”, and many development challenges are still poorly understood. In General Assembly resolution 70/1, United Nations Member States recognized the crucial role of strengthened data collection and capacity-building, and committed to addressing the gap (para. 57). The Cape Town Global Action Plan for Sustainable Development Data, endorsed by the Statistical Commission at its forty-eighth session in 2017, provides a road map for the modernization and strengthening of statistical systems.

Increased investments in national data and statistical systems and increased mobilization of international and domestic resources are imperative to meeting this urgent demand. The Dubai Declaration, launched at the World Data Forum 2018, calls for increased domestic and international resources and political commitment to strengthen data systems. It envisages a demand-driven funding mechanism, under United Nations membership oversight, that can respond quickly and efficiently to the priorities of national statistical systems. New data sources and technologies for data collection and for the integration of various data sources will need to be explored, including through partnerships with civil society, the private sector and academia. The integration of geospatial information and statistical data will be particularly important for the production of several indicators.

1 The complete list of indicators is available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/indicators-list .
2 The composition of the subregions is shown in the section on “Regional groupings”.
3 See Report of the Inter-agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goal Indicators (E/CN.3/2019/2), Annex I.
4 See Statistical Commission Report on the fiftieth session (E/2019/24-E/CN.3/2019/34).