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Country Profile of Mongolia

Main statistical agency
Main statistical agency name
National Statistical Office (NSO)
Web address
Position in the government
The NSO of Mongolia is not an agency of the government, it is an independent agency under the supervision of the Parliament.

The chairman of the National Statistical Office is appointed by the State Great Hural with the tenure of 6 years. The chairman of the National Statistical Office is accountable and report on his/ her activities to the State Great Hural.
Organizational structure and finance
Chairman of the NSO
Senior Vice Chairman
Vice Chairman
General Manager

Public Administration and Management Department
-Foreign Relations Division
-Data Dissemination Unit

Macro-economic Statistics Department
-Economic Statistics Division

Demographic and Social Statistics Department

Population and Housing Census Bureau

Research Department

Monitoring, Evaluation and Marketing Department

Data Processing and Technology Department

Regional Structure

Mongolia has 21 aimags (provinces) and the capital city, 346 soums (districts) and 1681 bags/khoroos (villages/sections of city districts).

The NSO has its branch offices in each aimags and capital city. Also, it has statistical divisions in all 9 districts of Capital city.
Main duties
The mission of the National Statistical Office (NSO) is to provide state, government and public users with reliable and accurate economic, social and population data and information that is immune to political influence and scientifically feasible and acceptable. Main functions:

o to collect, compile and analyze the official statistics;

o to coordinate with government agencies while receiving statistical information from various ministries and agencies;

o to introduce international standards and methodologies;

o to conduct surveys and thematic studies;

o to conduct population and housing census every 10 years;

o to capture all entities in the recording of the business register;

o to improve the data dissemination system and services;

o to monitor the accuracy of official statistics;

o to co-operate with international organizations and other national statistical services.

Brief history and other relevant background information
Brief history and other relevant background information
The statistics in Mongolia dates back to the remotest time. The historical records and books witness that our ancestors-the Huns counted their livestock and carved on the wood making the number. Later in the 13th century the Mongolian Empire enumerated its population and used the result to levy taxes.

The basis of official statistics was laid out since the enforcement of Article in the First Constitution of Mongolia which was approved in 1924. The article states to establish and operationalize the statistical activities of the country. The following law the registration division comprised of 6 staff was set up under the Ministry if Internal Affairs in November 11, 1924. As the scope and number of statistical activities increased the structure of statistical system expanded and in 1964 the Central Statistical Office was formed with much wider framework of activities and responsibilities based on a more centralized reporting system.

Starting from 1990 when Mongolia moved to a market economy the statistical and activities faced a challenge of undergoing fundamental reforms towards the operational ones in the newly introduced system. Particularly, from the mid of 1990s several milestone measures were taken to restructure the system in coherence with market economy conditions, adapt and implement international methodologies and principles and deliver more user oriented services. By now, Central Statistical Office was replaced by the National Statistical Office (NSO), Mongolia's official statistical agency, which is under the Parliament in accordance with the statistical law adopted in 1994 and revised in 1997. It has been conducting a number of surveys such as consumer price index survey, LSMS, HIES, RHS, Establishment Survey etc .

Legal basis
Legal basis
Law on Statistics

The first Law on Statistics was passed in 1994 by the Parliament of Mongolia.

Law on Statistics was amended later in 1997, 1999, 2004 and 2008 respectively.

Law on Population and Housing Census

Law on Population and Housing Census has been adopted by the State Great Khural /the Parliament/ in early 2008 as the first law that regulates all activities of Population and Housing Censuses.

The purpose of this law is to provide with the regulation among the relations related to arrangement of the annual census for every 10 years in nationwide of Population and Housing census in Mongolia.

Statistical advisory bodies
Statistical advisory bodies
The NSO is assisted by the National Statistical Council in charge of co-ordinating all official statistical activities and functions in Mongolia. It assists in maintaining official statistical activities and provides advice on use of uniform methodologies. The Chairman of the council is also the Chairman of the National Statistical Council. The council of the National Statistical Board consists of 7 members, who are not staff of the NSO. Two of the members are recommended by the Government and two are recommended by the relevant Standing Committee of State Khural and all of them are appointed by the State Great Khural. The fifth member is the President of the NSO.

Data collection
Most recent population census
5-11 January 2000
Access to administrative data
The NSO has access to the following administrative data. Of which :

Ministry of Finance:- state budget; foreign direct investment; customs report on foreign trade; and report on assayed gold
Bank of Mongolia: - interest income and expenses, treasury gold
Ministry of Fuel and Energy: - energy production and sale and capacity
Ministry of Road, Transportation and Tourism: - report on civil engineering design and business entities obtained special permits for construction

Ministry of Food and Agriculture: – summer ploughed land left fallow, preparedness of techniques/equipment, seeds, insemination, good pasture and wells

Ministry of Industry and Trade: – oil, geological prospecting, and foreign investment

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science: – statistics on the numbers of pupils, new entrants, drop-outs, teachers, and other employees, as well as data for kindergartens, technical and vocational schools, and institutes of higher education and surveys of research and development institutes, cultural organizations, museums, cinemas and libraries

Ministry of Environment: - data on water and forest usage, hunting, various pollutants, land degradation, and environmental quality

Ministry of Defense : - number of militants General Authority for Border Protection: - data on number of inbound and outbound passenger and means of transport through the border of Mongolia

Ministry of Foreign Affairs: - Mongolian nationals living abroad permanently

Ministry of Health: - data on mortality, morbidity, disability, and diseases

Ministry of Social Welfare and Labour: - data on social security, other pensions, disability payments and assistance to poor families as well as reports on industrial accidents and occupational disease

State Supreme Court: - court of original jurisdiction Mongolian Stock Exchange: - report on securities Financial Regulatory Committee: - activities of insurance companies

Information and Communication Technology Agency: - mobile communication and internet service

General Police Department: - Offences Independent Authority Against Corruption: - statistics on corruption

National Emergency Management Agency: - disaster and accidents
Data confidentiality
According to provision No.22 of the law on statistics :
1. The use of statistical information for illegal profit making purposes by statistical respondents, users and any other relevant bodies is prohibited.

2. The alteration or adjustment of the results of official statistical information and surveys by users is prohibited.

3. The publication or dissemination of information which is still being processed as well as information which has been identified by the appropriate lawful authorities as information concerning national interests or confidential information about individuals, business entities or other organizations is prohibited.

4. The sale and transmission of results of official statistical information by users without permission of statistical organizations are prohibited.

5. Transmission, sale and deletion of raw data from censuses and surveys kept in computer¬ readable media before the permitted date of release of information are prohibited.
6. Central and local statistical offices shall strictly keep the individuals and legal bodies information confidential and use the data and information to produce overall results by national, regional, aimag, capital city, soum, district and sectoral level and to estimate statistical indicators;
/ This paragraph was added by the Law of April 23, 2004/
7, The raw data of the individuals and legal bodies covered in censuses and sample surveys shall be utilized after process of it. The Chairman of the National Statistical Office shall approve a procedure for processing raw data and its utilization by users in conformation with the Confidentiality Code.

/This paragraph was added by the Law of April 23, 2004/
/Amended by the Law of January 3, 2008/

Data dissemination
Main publications
- Statistical Yearbook - In Mongolian and English A5 format. The National Statistical Office has been producing the Statistical Yearbook of Mongolia since 1960.

- Monthly bulletin of Statistics-In Mongolian and English A5 format. This publication contains major indicators of the socio-economic situation of the country with respect to labour market and earnings, households and social benefits, population, prices, money and finance, agriculture, industry and construction, transport and trade.

- Review of Statisticscs - In Mongolian Statistical review contains statistical materials and analytical notes characterizing socio-economic situation of Mongolia, economic reviews on the problems of external trade, reports on the process in social sphere as well as main methodological evaluations of Mongolia.
Languages of main publications
Mongolian, English.
How are data disseminated (Paper, CD Rom, Website, online databases, databanks)?
Mass media
-TV, Radio, daily newspapers (on agreement)
-Monthly press conference
-Interviews on TV and radio

-Reports on Census and Sample Surveys Main
-Statistical Yearbook
-Statistical Bulletins and report on a monthly

-End user data base (DevInfo, Redatam)

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