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Country Profile of Romania

Main statistical agency
Main statistical agency name
National Institute of Statistics (INS)
Web address
Position in the government
The NSO reports to the Primer Minister through the General Secretariat of the government
Organizational structure and finance
The National Institute of Statistics is run by a president of state secretary rank and 3 vice-presidents of state sub-secretary rank; one of them is directly in charge of the European integration activity, another one has the task of coordinating the economic and social statistics activities, while the third is directly involved in the coordination of statistical infrastructure.

The president represents the institution in its relation with other authorities of central general government and with third legal persons, with natural persons, as well as with internal and external organizations and has the following general tasks in his field of activity:

a) organizes, coordinates and controls the application of Government laws, ordinances and decisions, of legal issued orders and instructions, observing the authority benchmark and the principle of local autonomy of public institutions and of economic units;

b) initiates and approves Government law projects, ordinances and decisions, under the conditions settled by the methodology approved by the Government;

c) acts for applying the National Institute of Statistics own strategy, integrated in the Government economic and social development one;

d) substantiates and draws up proposals for the yearly budget, which are submitted for approval to the Government;

e) pursues the projection and the achievement of investments in the system of the National Institute of Statistics based on the approved budget;

f) represents the state interest in various organizations and international bodies, according to the agreements and conventions in which Romania is part and to other settled agreements and develops collaboration relations with similar organizations whose field of activity is interesting;

g) pursues and controls the application of international agreemnets and conventions in which Romania is part and takes measures to carry out the conditions for the integration into European structures and into other international bodies;

h) collaborates with specialized higher education institutions for the staff vocational training in the system of official statistics.

The vice-presidents tasks are set out by order of the president of National Institute of Statistics.

The general secretary:

a) coordinates the good functioning of compartments and of functional activities within the National Institute of Statistics and assures the operative link between the president and leaders of all compartments in the institute and leaders of subordinated units;

b) collaborates with general secretaries of other institutions on common interest problems;

c) coordinates the activity of carrying out the guiding policy and principles for resources management within compartments;

d) has also other tasks stipulated by the Regulation on the organization and functioning of the National Institute of Statistics or given by the president.

The National Institute of Statistics has the following units:

a) 8 regional statistical directions - centers of development regions, settled according to the stipulations of the Law no. 151/1998 on regional development in Romania, with later modifications, and 34 county statistical directions at the level of the other counties, as public services with legal entity;

b) The publishing house "Romanian Statistical Review" and the National Center for Training in Statistics, public institutions with legal entity, totally financed from own income.

In order to assure objective, transparent and scientific methodologies, indicators, nomenclatures and classifications used in statistical activity, besides the National Institute of Statistics, the Council of Statistical Activity Coordination is functioning, as a consulting body mainly charged with the analysis and approval of development strategy of national statistical system, the activity reports of the National Institute of Statistics and the yearly program of statistical surveys.
Multi-annual or annual work program
Annual programme and a multi-annual programmes are prepared.
Main duties
In order to achieve its activity, the National Institute of Statistics has the following tasks:

a) draws up the system of statistical indicators, the computation methodologies and the specific technologies and standards to obtain these indicators;

b) organizes and manages statistical surveys on economic and social phenomena and processes, by means of censuses, exhaustive or sample statistical surveys;

c) designs, prints and disseminates the statistical surveys questionnaires as well as the related guidelines to fill them in;

d) collects, processes and stores data and information with the view to ensure the statistical databases;

e) coordinates the drawing up of unitary classifications and nomenclatures of national interest in its field of activity;

f) designs, carries out and exploits the statistical information system;

g) draws up studies and analyses with a view to characterize economic and social development;

h) carries out scientific research activities in statistical field;

i) informs public opinion as well as public authorities on economic and social evolution of the country and provides interested users with the achieved statistical indicators;

j) organizes and manages the subordinated units, sets out their tasks and functioning norms;

k) collaborates with ministries and other specialized bodies of central general government as well as public services in order to make compatible the official statistics system with the other information systems, supports these bodies with a view to ensure the training of the staff involved in statistical activity;

l) endorses the methodologies of statistical surveys organized by ministries, central institutions and other public services, in order to ensure the survey timeliness and the accuracy of statistical methods used;

m) organizes vocational training in statistical field for the staff of the institute, of its subordinated units and of other official statistics services and acts with a view to create a statistical culture at national level;

n) represents Romania within international relations in statistical field and cooperates with similar organizations of other countries, with specialized bodies of the United Nations and its agencies, with other international bodies ;

o) assures the compatibility of national statistical system with statistical systems used by the United Nations, European Union and other international bodies according to the assumed commitments.

Brief history and other relevant background information
Brief history and other relevant background information
July 12, 1859 - The ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza signed The Ordinance on the setting up on Central Administrative Statistics Office, marking the birth certificate of official statistics in Romania. This moment is also related to the names of two famous Romanian economists of the XIX-th century, Dionisie Pop Martian and Ion Ionescu de la Brad.

In the long run, official statistics, one of the first public institutions created in Romania after the Union as well as one of oldest statistical offices in Europe has faced evolutions and reorganizations, successively changing its name, always observing the principles of truth and probity of its approach, keeping its status of main instrument of knowledge and evaluation of the country reality, providing, through statistical data and information, the necessary background to the authorities, to economic units, to the whole society, to build up and put into practice some realistic programs of governing, of economic and social development.

I. Start and confirmation (1859-1877)

Since the beginning, without having the necessary material resources, sufficient and specialized staff, the statistical institution ventured and succeeded to end far-reaching actions, gaining fame and prestige. The following were achieved:

o Population Census (1859-1860)

o Industrial Establishment Census (1863), the first national survey of an European Country

o "Statistical and Economic Annals (1860)"

o Romania was among the most active participants in international statistical congresses in London, Berlin, Florence and Hague

II. Contributions to economic and social consolidation of Romania after conquering the state independence (1877-1914).

Carrying on the steps of the pioneer period, official statistics is one of the main pillars of the Romanian state in the period of its consolidation, through a substantial contribution of statistical information necessary to take accurate decisions for the country development. The following were achieved:

o Population Census of 1899 and 1912

o Publication System was enriched with the following series:

Romanian Statistical Bulletin (1892)
Demographic Review (1892)
Statistical Yearbook of Romania (1909)

o Higher statistical education was created, through the Academy of High Commercial and Social Studies (1913)

III. Romanian statistical school in vanguard of international statistics (1918-1945)

Between the two world wars, Romanian official statistics imposes itself, through its great personalities, the status of a prestige school at international level. It is the period when the institution takes advantage from the creative activity of famous personalities: Dimitrie Gusti, Octav Onicescu, Grigore Moisil, Gheorghe Mihoc, Sabin Manuila, Anton Golopentia etc.

Reference points:

o Romanian Agriculture Atlas (1929)

o General Population Census of Romania (1930)

o General Census of Romania (1941), in which the main place was held by the inventory of industrial enterprises

o Agriculture Census (1941), the first systematic paper of this type carried out in our country

o Extension of selective samples for almost all fields of national economy

o Setting up the Statistical School (1930) which became Statistical Institute of Bucharest University (1941)

IV. Keeping the identity and professional probity (1946-1989)

The years after the second world war, a period full of obstacles and difficulties, of all kinds of pressure, are however characterized by the efforts made by a new generation of statisticians - most of them were ex-collaborators and disciples of previous period masters - to assure the continuity of statistical data and series and to keep at great extent the credibility of Romanian official statistics, in spite of totalitarian regime, of convenient and make up presentation of some statistical information. Among the efforts made to keep the identity of statistical science and of professional probity of its civil servants, it is well known the contribution of Mihail Levente and Mircea Biji, of other remarkable specialists for the following:

o Carrying out very complex statistical papers

Population and Housing Census (1966 and 1977)
The first balance of economic branches connection

o Passing to data electronic processing

o Beginning the collaboration with UN Statistical Direction

V. For a functional market economy, serving the state of right and democratic values of Romanian society

The new history of statistics is related to the end of 1989. After December 1989, Romanian statistics regained the virtues of a modern statistics, complying with the international norms and standards, aiming at obtaining comparable statistical data. The preponderantly exhaustive surveys carried out during the years previous to the Revolution were mostly replaced with sample surveys, which imply a special scientific rigor on the information producer side, wider specific knowledge on the statistician side and, at the same time, a statistical culture of information user and provider, in view to perceive their values and to use them in their undertakings.
Since that moment, a lot of difficulties and a lot of challenges were faced.
If one would like to make an inventory of various milestones of statistical starting with 1990, this should include the following:
 1992: Government Ordinance on official statistics functioning (subsequently approved by Law in 1994);
 1992: Common Declaration between Eurostat and 7 countries in transition (among which, Romania);
 1994: bilateral Common Declaration between Eurostat & INS/Romania;
 1996: the reply to the first questionnaire from the to Ministry of the Europe Integration (a detailed self assessment of the Romanian statistics);
 1998 & 1999: two screening exercises took place one multicountry and one bilateral with the European Commission experts;
 2000: chapter 12 of negotiation on statistics in the acquis communautaire, meaning that Romania complied with EU norms and standards, without requesting any derogations or transition periods;
 years of Phare Programs (National & Multicountry) assisting the Romanian statistics development resulted in progresses towards the sustainability of the system;
 years of being observers in the working parties, task forces, seminars, conferences in Eurostat, through which we learnt a lot not only from Eurostat, but also from our colleagues from EU Member States.
Nowadays, the Romanian statistics is integrated in the decision making process and deeply involved at the international and European level. As an arch over time and over cooperation matters dealt by INS/Romania, since 2006 the institute turns to give technical assistance to other countries needing this, such as: Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Ukraine.

Legal basis
Legal basis
- G.O. no. 9/1992 on the organization of official statistics, republished (Official Journal of Romania no. 763/18.10.2002);

- G.O. no. 67/2003 for the modification and completion of G.O. no. 9/1992 on the organization of official statistics (Official Journal of Romania no. 618/30.08.2003);
- G.O. no. 71/2004 for the modification and completion of G.O. no. 9/1992 on the organization of official statistics (Official Journal of Romania no. 774/24.08.2004)

- Law no. 463/2003 on the approval of G.O. no. 67/2003 or the modification and completion of Government Ordinance no. 9/1992 on the organization of official statistics (Official Journal of Romania no. 817/19.11.2003);
- G.D. no. 957/2005 on the organization and functioning of the National Institute of Statistics (Official Journal of Romania no. 810/7.09.2005);
- G.D. no. 592/ 2002 on the setting up of "Statistician Day" (Official Journal of Romania no 439/24.06.2002);

- G.D. no. 1504/2002 on the setting up besides the National Institute of Statistics on an activity totally financed from own revenue (Official Journal of Romania no.19/15.01.2003);
- G.D. no. 295/2003 n the organization and functioning of the National Statistical Training Center (Official Journal of Romania no. 211/1.04.2003);
- G.D. no. 294/2006 on the approval of 2006 Program of statistical surveys of the National Institute of Statistics (Official Journal of Romania no. 243/17.03. 2006).
The Statistics Laws cover provisions referring to principles for statistical functioning; statistical activities; statistical data collection; confidentiality; access to data, obligations and penalties.

Other producers of official statistics
Other producers of official statistics
Education statistics - Ministry of Education;
Justice Statistics - Ministry of Justice;
Health Statistics - Ministry of Health, etc

Statistical advisory bodies
Statistical advisory bodies
Through the statistical law the Council for Coordination of Statistical Activity (CCAS) has been established. It is an advisory body; 35 members; the INS President is member by right; various categories of providers and producers and users of statistics are represented usually by a high level official. Main tasks of the Council are: to analyse and approve the general development strategy of the national statistical system, the work reports of the INS and the annual programme of the statistical surveys. The CCAS meets quarterly, and when necessary, as the case may be.

Data collection
Most recent population census
18 March 2002
Access to administrative data
Extract from the Romania statistical law:

"In order to complete the requested data and to minimise the response burden of the statistical subjects, the official statistical services have access to primary data of the administrative records of central and local public administration institutions."
Data confidentiality
Data confidentiality is covered in the Law and specific technical norms have been adopted. Appropriate I.T. applications are used in each case for particular surveys.

Data dissemination
Release calendar (existence, when and how published)
The release calendar is announced usually yearly. For particular cases, including the dissemination programme of the censuses, the calendar is announced according to the time schedule approved through laws or special government decisions.
Main publications
A catalogue of publications is available on the website.
Languages of main publications
Romanian, English.
How are data disseminated (Paper, CD Rom, Website, online databases, databanks)?
Paper, electronic, website.
Availability of microdata for research purposes
Only depersonalised data and in special cases for researchers and Eurostat databases.

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