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4.52.                  With regards to inbound tourism expenditure, Balance‑of‑Payments figures for the “travel” and “passenger transport” items are used extensively as a first approximation. IRTS 2008 (paras. 8.22-8.25) explicitly recommends that tourism statistics allow tourism‑related expenditure to be identified under “travel” and “passenger transport” as a item supplementary to the standard Balance‑of‑Payments component. The supplementary breakdown proposed in BPM6 for this purpose (goods, local transportation services, accommodation service, food serving services and other services) conforms fairly well with that of COICOP, although the differentiation between goods and services may cut across the COICOP‑based categories (see paras. 5.9-5.16).

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Box IV.4 

Trip expenditures imputation: Travel Survey of Residents of Canada 

In the Travel Survey of Residents of Canada, trip   expenditures’ imputation is conducted for expenditure data to ensure that   every record has a valid expenditure value for all expenditure categories.   All other missing or erroneous values are either corrected or converted to a   "not stated" code. Expenditure values are imputed based on the   average expenditure for this variable from other selected trips with similar   characteristics. 

Common characteristics are used since expenditures   vary considerably depending on trip characteristics. Averages are computed   for trips with common characteristics, such as destination, duration, number   of people in the travel party and main reason for trip. Averages are computed   separately for trips from the first and second recall months. There must be   at least three contributing records for each imputation category; this is not   the case, trip characteristics are collapsed to a less specific level, and a   set of averages is calculated for this higher level of trip type. 

An additional step in the imputation process is the   distribution of tour package expenditures to specific expenditure categories.   This is accomplished in the same fashion as expenditure imputation. Imputed   expenditures are then re‑edited to ensure that no outlier values have been   created by the expenditure imputation process. After this procedure, an extra   adjustment is performed for same‑day trips with identical trips and high   expenditures.

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Source: Statistics Canada.