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4.33.              For issues relevant to their countries, many Balance‑of‑Payments compilers have developed methods of estimation based on information collected from railway companies or airlines. It is important that compilers of tourism statistics understand and participate in the estimation procedure so that they can apply the results properly. The data derived from these procedures, however, may not be sufficiently detailed for the purpose of making specific adjustments to the information collected from surveys of visitors and assigning them to the different categories of tourism expenditure, because, the Balance of Payments is concerned only with global data. This distribution will possibly require some types of adjustments in the data and the final presentation within the table recommended by the TSA (if relevant). It is also to be remembered that tourism statistics (which, basically, are compiled for the purpose of setting up a TSA) use the net valuation principle for reservation services (see IRTS 2008, paras. 6.46-6.54), which is not the case. Either in the Balance of Payments or, necessarily, in National Accounts (see TSA: RMF 2008, paras. 3.21-3.24).


Box IV.1 

Imputation in the Statistics Canada International Travel Survey Program 

In the International Travel   Survey (ITS), missing transportation fares and/or total travel expenses are   imputed when the other fields of the questionnaire are valid. The imputed   values for such a questionnaire are calculated from the mean of the   corresponding fields of the other questionnaires sharing some identical key   characteristics with the given questionnaire. 

Target populations   (American, overseas and Canadian international travellers) are partitioned   into Port Factor Groups (PFGs), based on selected traveller characteristics,   such as country of residence, mode of entry and duration of stay. Total   imputation (i.e., imputation of complete questionnaires) is carried out for   all PFGs or strata that are outside the scope of questionnaire distribution.   There are 120 Canadian and American PFGs for which Statistics Canada never   receives questionnaires. These imputed questionnaires accounted for only 4.4   percent of all United States travellers to Canada and 1.2 percent of Canadian   residents travelling outside Canada. 

Imputation of   questionnaires is required only for Canadian and United States travellers.   Total imputation is also performed for any in‑scope PFG for which an   insufficient number of questionnaires have been received for the quarter. In   these instances, all the questionnaires from the same quarter of the previous   year that belong to the PFG are brought forward and added to the sample of   that PFG for the reference quarter. If necessary, additional total imputation   is also performed for United States car travellers by States of origin to   meet minimum requirements (combination of minimum number of questionnaires   and maximum weight) based on the frontier counts.


Source: Statistics Canada.


4.41.              A challenge that needs to be considered irrespective of the approach is that of differentiating between wholesalers and retailers, who may either purchase pre‑packaged tours or package them themselves, and, between their respective margins on the various products. As tourism statistics encompass matters involving only direct contact with visitors, the retailers’ margin but not the wholesalers’ should be included.


Box IV.2  Treatment T

reatment of package tours in the Balance of Payments: example of Austria 

In Austria, the main source for collecting data on   expenditure on goods and services for outbound trips is the quarterly sample   survey dealing with holiday and business trips. The outcome of this survey   encompasses the expenditure for outbound travel. 

However, the amount of expenditure also includes   components that must be allocated to domestic tourism (e.g., the travel   agency fee for services rendered). Thus, owing to conceptual and   methodological factors, these arises a discrepancy with respect to the   Balance‑of‑Payments Travel item (T-BoP), which covers the collection of   expenditure abroad. Therefore, these domestic components have to be isolated   in order for these to be consistency with the recommendations of the   International Monetary Fund (IMF) as the physical travel destination may not   coincide with the actual monetary flow, as in the case where tour operators   located in third countries are involved. Indeed, in the many cases where tour   operators located in Germany or the United Kingdom organize package tours for   Austrian residents, the monetary flows do not coincide with the physical   travel destinations but rather with the official location of the tour   operators. According to IMF recommendations, passenger transport has to be   accounted for separately and is not part of the Travel item in the Balance of   Payments as conceived in its narrower sense. Therefore, as package products   in many cases include a transportation item, it is necessary to separate   these products into their components to at least isolate the international   transport item.

Given that the sample survey is demand‑related,   necessary adjustments relating to package products need to be made namely:

    •   Certain (cost)   components that are part of domestic production must be excluded, as they are   not part of the T-BoP
    •   Transportation   items must be segregated from the general travel products
    •   The   geographical breakdown must be adjusted according to the monetary flows, if   tour operators located in third countries are involved. 

As these operations cannot be accomplished by using   only the information from the sample survey, additional information from   business providers is needed. This supply‑oriented information is used to   establish a disaggregation model so as to enable the expenditure amount of   package tours to be separated into sub‑aggregates, which can then be adjusted   according to T-BoP requirements. 

It should be emphasized that this method is adapted   to compilation conditions in Austria and should therefore be viewed as one   input into further discussion on the issue of package tours. 

More information on how Statistics Austria treats   package tours within the travel item of the Balance of Payments can be found   in the Eurostat Methodological Manual   for Tourism Statistics, version 1.2.


Source: Statistics Austria (2013).


Box IV.3 

Statistics on products in the services sector: example of Spain 

The form of the   organization of a trip is a characteristic of the trip which is usually   collected in demand surveys and enables an evaluation of the volume and   importance of the package tours. In Spain, this variable is   included in household surveys (La   encuesta de monumentos turísticos de los Españoles (FAMILITUR)) and in   frontier surveys (La encuesta de   movimientos turísticos en fronteras (FRONTUR) and La encuesta de gasto turístico (EGATUR)). 

The information related   to package tours, collected from the demand side, is highly useful. However,   the supply survey approach, where this information is directly provided by   the companies that develop these products, should not be neglected. 

Information from the   supply side is best for elaborating various elements of great significance in   characterizing tour packages, such as their composition (services included)   and their marketing circuit. 

In order to obtain this   information, Spain’s National Statistics Institute has developed a specific   module for travel agencies through on which certain data related to package   tours are collected. This survey is included in Statistics on Products in the   Service Sector, which is part of the Annual Services Survey. 

For travel agency and   tour operator activities, the available information is divided into three   sections: 

    • Ÿ    Breakdown of purchases of products and services acquired
    • Ÿ    Breakdown of turnover by product and service sold
    • Ÿ    Breakdown of turnover by type of client 

The data derived from   this survey can be applied to some of the tasks associated with the TSA   framework (e.g., the unbundling of package tours).


Source: Spain, Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (2011).