Indicator Name, Target and Goal

Indicator 5.5.2: Proportion of women in managerial positions

Target 5.5: Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Definition and Rationale

Definition:

This indicator refers to the proportion of females in the total number of persons employed in managerial positions. It is recommended to use two different measures jointly for this indicator: the share of females in (total) management and the share of females in senior and middle management (thus excluding junior management). The joint calculation of these two measures provides information on whether women are more represented in junior management than in senior and middle management, thus pointing to an eventual ceiling for women to access higher-level management positions. In these cases, calculating only the share of women in (total) management would be misleading, in that it would suggest that women hold positions with more decision-making power and responsibilities than they actually do. 

Concepts:

-               Employment comprises all persons of working age who, during a short reference period (one week), were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit. For further clarification, see: Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization (2013).

-               Employment in management is determined according to the categories of the latest version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08), which organizes jobs into a clearly defined set of groups based on the tasks and duties undertaken in the job. For the purposes of this indicator, it is preferable to refer separately to senior and middle management only on one hand, and to total management (including junior management) on the other. Senior and middle management correspond to sub-major groups 11, 12 and 13 in ISCO-08 and sub-major groups 11 and 12 in ISCO-88. If statistics are not available disaggregated at the sub-major group level (two-digit level of ISCO), then major group 1 of ISCO-88 and ISCO-08 can be used as a proxy and the indicator would then refer only to total management (including junior management). 

Rationale and Interpretation:

This indicator provides a meaningful measure of the percentage of females who are employed in decision-making and management roles in government, large enterprises and institutions, thus providing some insight into women’s power in decision-making and in the economy, relative to men’s power.

Data Sources and Collection Method

The data for this indicator is collected through labour force surveys or any other household survey which collects such data through a module on employment. Establishment/firm surveys or administrative records can also provide useful data on female-occupied management positions by ISCO groups. Surveys are conducted by national statistical offices or ministries of labour in countries.

Method of Computation and Other Methodological Considerations

Computation Method:

The two recommended measures are the percentage of females in senior and middle-management positions (Psmmgmt) and the percentage of females in managerial positions (Pmgmt). They are calculated as follows:

 

where,

Wsmmgmt is the number of women employed in jobs of ISCO-08’s sub-major groups 11, 12 and 13 (which also corresponds to major group 1 minus sub-major group 14) or ISCO-88’s sub-major groups 11 and 12 (which also corresponds to major group 1 minus sub-major group 13); and

Tmgmt is the total number of persons employed in jobs of ISCO-08’s sub-major groups 11, 12 and 13 (which also corresponds to major group 1 minus sub-major group 14) or ISCO-88’s sub-major groups 11 and 12 (which also corresponds to major group 1 minus sub-major group 13).  

where,

Wmgmt is the number of women employed in ISCO-08’s group 1 or ISCO-88’s group 1 jobs; and

Tmgmt is the total number of persons employed in ISCO-08’s group 1 or ISCO-88’s group 1 jobs. 

Comments and limitations:

The main limitation of this indicator is that it fails to capture the differences in the levels of responsibility of women in their respective managerial position, or the importance of the enterprises and organizations in which they are employed. Its quality is also significantly impacted by the reliability of the employment statistics by occupation at the two-digit level of the ISCO. Whenever data at the two-digit level of the ISCO are not available, data at the one-digit level could be used as a proxy, referring only to major group 1 of ISCO-08 or ISCO-88, rather than to also refer to major group 1 minus category 14 of ISCO-08 or major group 1 minus category 13 of ISCO-88. This implies referring to the female share in total management, rather than also to the female share in senior and middle management exclusively. This proxy should be used only in case of lack of availability of data at the two-digit level of the ISCO, as total management includes junior management, and women tend to be more represented in junior management positions than in senior or middle management positions, and thus, by referring only to total management one may over-estimate women’s impact in high-level decision-making roles.

Data Disaggregation

This indicator can be disaggregated by economic activities of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). 

References

Official SDG Metadata URL
https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/files/Metadata-05-05-02.pdf  

Internationally agreed methodology and guideline URL
ILO (2013). Decent Work Indicators: Guidelines for Producers and Users of Statistical and Legal Framework Indicators. Geneva. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/publication/wcms_223121.pdf

ILO. International Standard Classification of Occupations. Geneva. Internet site: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08/ 

Other references
ILOSTAT. Geneva. Internet site: http://www.ilo.org/ilostat

ILO (2013). Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization. Nineteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Available at: http://ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/standards-and-guidelines/resolutions-adopted-by-international-conferences-of-labour-statisticians/WCMS_230304/lang--en/index.htm

ILO (2013). Decent work indicators - Guidelines for producers and users of statistical and legal framework indicators. ILO manual. Second version.

Country examples
N/A

International Organization(s) for Global Monitoring

This document was prepared based on inputs from International Labour Organization (ILO).

For focal point information for this indicator, please visit https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/dataContacts/

  • No labels