Indicator Name, Target and Goal

Indicator 11.5.2: Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters

Target 11.5: By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Definition and Rationale

Definition:

This indicator measures the ratio of direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters. 

This indicator has 3 components and they are described below. 

Concepts:

  • Direct economic loss: the monetary value of total or partial destruction of physical assets existing in the affected area. Direct economic loss is nearly equivalent to physical damage.

*Annotations: Examples of physical assets that are the basis for calculating direct economic loss include homes, schools, hospitals, commercial and governmental buildings, transport, energy, telecommunications infrastructures and other infrastructure; business assets and industrial plants; and production such as crops, livestock and production infrastructure. They may also encompass environmental assets and cultural heritage. Direct economic losses usually happen during the event or within the first few hours after the event and are often assessed soon after the event to estimate recovery cost and claim insurance payments. These are tangible and relatively easy to measure.

  • Critical infrastructure: The physical structures, facilities, networks and other assets which provide services that are essential to the social and economic functioning of a community or society.
  • Basic services: Services that are needed for all of society to function appropriately.

*Annotation: Examples of basic services include water supply, sanitation, health care and education. They also include services provided by critical infrastructure such as electricity, telecommunications, transport or waste management that are needed for all of society to function.

For this indicator, disruption, interruption or lower quality of basic services is proposed to be measured for at least the following public services: Healthcare facilities, Educational facilities, Power/energy and other utility system, Transport system. 

Rationale and Interpretation:

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted by UN Member States in March 2015 as a global policy of disaster risk reduction. Among the global targets, “Target C: Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030” will contribute to sustainable development and strengthen economic, social, health and environmental resilience. The economic, environmental and social perspectives would include poverty eradication, urban resilience, and climate change adaptation.

The open-ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reduction (OIEWG) established by the General Assembly (resolution 69/284) has developed a set of indicators to measure global progress in the implementation of the Sendai Framework, which was endorsed by the UNGA (OIEWG report A/71/644). The relevant global indicators for the Sendai Framework will be used to report for this indicator. 

Disaster loss data is greatly influenced by large-scale catastrophic events, which represent important outliers. UNISDR recommends countries report the data by event, so that complementary analysis can be undertaken to obtain trends and patterns in which such catastrophic events (that can represent outliers in terms of damage) can be included or excluded.

Data Sources and Collection Method

Data providers at national level are appointed Sendai Framework Focal Points. In most countries disaster data are collected by line ministries and national disaster loss databases are established and managed by special purpose agencies including national disaster management agencies, civil protection agencies, and meteorological agencies. The Sendai Framework Focal Points in each country are responsible of data reporting through the online Sendai Framework Monitoring System.

Method of Computation and Other Methodological Considerations

Computation Method:

This indicator has three datasets:

1)        Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP,

2)       damage to critical infrastructure, and

3)       number of disruptions to basic services. 

Detailed methodologies can be found in the Technical Guidance (see the Reference 2)

A short summary:

The original national disaster loss databases usually register physical damage value (housing unit loss, infrastructure loss etc.), which is reported to 2), while monetary value for 1) needs conversion according to a standardized methodology, either provided nationally or described in the Technical Guidance. For 3) “disruption” includes:  interruptions, either single or multiple, short or long, of the services; or a measurable/noticeable reduction in the quality of the service; or reduction in the service coverage; or a combination of the above situations. Countries are required to separately report by facilities according to the sub-indicators, and maintain their methodologies consistent over the reporting period. 

1) Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP:

For complete information on this sub-indicator please refer to Indicator: 1.5.2

These sub-indicators include global indicators for the Sendai Framework;

C-2: Direct agricultural loss attributed to disasters.

Agriculture is understood to include the crops, livestock, fisheries, apiculture, aquaculture and forest sectors as well as associated facilities and infrastructure.

C-3: Direct economic loss to all other damaged or destroyed productive assets attributed to disasters.

Productive assets would be disaggregated by economic sector, including services, according to standard international classifications. Countries would report against those economic sectors relevant to their economies. This would be described in the associated metadata.

C-4: Direct economic loss in the housing sector attributed to disasters.

Data would be disaggregated according to damaged and destroyed dwellings.

C-5: Direct economic loss resulting from damaged or destroyed critical infrastructure attributed to disasters.

The decision regarding those elements of critical infrastructure to be included in the calculation will be left to the Member States and described in the accompanying metadata. Protective infrastructure and green infrastructure should be included where relevantC-6: Direct economic loss to cultural heritage damaged or destroyed attributed to disasters. 

2) damage to critical infrastructure

D-2: Number of destroyed or damaged health facilities attributed to disasters.

D-3: Number of destroyed or damaged educational facilities attributed to disasters.

D-4: Number of other destroyed or damaged critical infrastructure units and facilities attributed to disasters.

The decision regarding those elements of critical infrastructure to be included in the calculation will be left to the Member States and described in the accompanying metadata. Protective infrastructure and green infrastructure should be included where relevant.  

3) number of disruptions to basic services

D-6: Number of disruptions to educational services attributed to disasters.

D-7: Number of disruptions to health services attributed to disasters.

D-8: Number of disruptions to other basic services attributed to disasters.

The decision regarding those elements of basic services to be included in the calculation will be left to the Member States and described in the accompanying metadata.  

Comments and limitations:

The Sendai Framework Monitoring System has been developed to measure the progress in the implementation of the Sendai Framework by UNGA endorsed indicators. Member States are to report through the System from March 2018. The data for SDG indicators are compiled and reported by UNISDR. 

Proxy, alternative and additional indicators:

While the data obtained therough the Sendai Framework Monitor has no thresholds,  most international data sources only record events that surpass some threshold of impact and use secondary data sources which usually have non uniform or even inconsistent methodologies, producing heterogeneous datasets.

Data Disaggregation

This indicator is required to be disaggregated by:

Direct agricultural loss attributed to disasters;

Direct economic loss to all other damaged or destroyed productive assets attributed to disasters;

Direct economic loss in the housing sector attributed to disasters;

Direct economic loss resulting from damaged or destroyed critical infrastructure attributed to disasters;

Direct economic loss to cultural heritage damaged or destroyed attributed to disasters;

Number of destroyed or damaged health facilities attributed to disasters;

Number of destroyed or damaged educational facilities attributed to disasters;

Number of other destroyed or damaged critical infrastructure units and facilities attributed to disasters;

Number of disruptions to educational services attributed to disasters;

Number of disruptions to health services attributed to disasters; and

Number of disruptions to other basic services attributed to disasters. 

It can be also disaggregated as follows.

Hazard

Geography (Administrative Unit)

C-2: type of crops, livestock lost, and other agricultural sectors

C-3:  level of affectation (damaged/destroyed), and type and size of Facility (types according to ISIC classification and size in categories such as small/medium/large.)

C-4: house location (such as rural/urban). Optionally by size (small/medium/large), and material (wood, cardboard, masonry, etc.) 

C-5: level of affectation (damaged/destroyed), and type and size of infrastructure (types according to UNISDR provided classification based on HAZUS, and size in categories such as unpaved/paved/highway or small/medium/large.).

D-2, 3, 4:  level of affectation (damaged/destroyed), and type and size of infrastructure (types according to UNISDR provided classification based on HAZUS, and size in categories such as unpaved/paved/highway or small/medium/large. The disaggregation will be declared in the accompanying metadata)

D-4: infrastructure

D-8:  by type of service as declared in the accompanying metadata

The disaggregation is set up by each country in the accompanying metadata

References

Official SDG Metadata URL
https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/files/Metadata-11-05-02.pdf  

Internationally agreed methodology and guideline URL
Technical guidance for monitoring and reporting on progress in achieving the global targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR 2018) https://www.preventionweb.net/publications/view/54970 

Other references
Report of the open-ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reduction (OEIWG). Endorsed by UNGA on 2nd February 2017. Available at: https://www.preventionweb.net/publications/view/51748

Country examples
N/A

International Organization(s) for Global Monitoring

This document was prepared based on inputs from United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).

For focal point information for this indicator, please visit https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/dataContacts/

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