The paper of Lai et al. (2019) found a high correlation between the census data and call detail record (CDR) estimates of internal migration as shown in Figure 2.

The paper concludes that "the estimates of migration flows made using CDRs is a promising avenue for complementing more traditional national statistics and obtaining more timely and local data".

Figure 2 Logarithmic relation between census-derived populations in 2011 and the number of CDR-derived mobile phone users in Periods 2011 (a) and 2012 (b) at the regional level. The green solid lines represent linear regression fit, with p and R2 values provided.

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