D.  Preferred collection practices and comparison of data sources for modes 2 and 4 numbers of persons

11.28.    Tables 11.7 and 11.8 provide an overview of the different sources from which the number of modes 2 and 4 trips and/or persons can be derived, as well as some of their characteristics from the perspective of both the sending (outgoing individuals) and receiving (incoming individuals) country. Compilers should carefully evaluate how residence is defined in their country, be aware of the laws and regulations in place for migration and trade in services and assess how that information can be used in a statistical context. 

11.29.    Table 11.7 on mode 2 movements of persons shows that the sources of interest would most likely be the same as some of those used for the collection of travel information. An ITRS cannot capture such information, but household and border surveys can capture information on outgoing individuals travelling for personal or business reasons. Often such surveys need to be elaborated to identify the travel motive (business or personal reasons). Labour force surveys and enterprise surveys constitute appropriate sources for capturing the number of outgoing persons travelling for business reasons. For incoming mode 2 persons, specific surveys targeting students, medical personnel and tourists could be used, as well as border surveys that can be conducted as persons leave the country. Administrative sources such as border counts or entry/departure cards can be used to get an initial, timely estimate of the number of individuals leaving or entering the country to consume services, but compilers should be aware that it might be difficult to add supplementary questions to such sources. Often the data will need to be combined, in particular for compiling breakdowns, to obtain relevant data on the number of mode 2 movements/persons, e.g., through the use of data models using numbers from border counts, entry/departure cards and information from border or household surveys. 

11.30.    Table 11.8 breaks down the categories of mode 4 persons into four categories: employees and self-employed contractual services suppliers, intracorporate transferees/foreign employees of foreign affiliates and services sellers. 

11.31.    Regarding mode 4 types of persons, enterprise surveys (i.e., trade in services, structural business or general enterprise surveys) constitute an important source for both incoming and outgoing employees and for self-employed persons providing services under a contract (i.e., contractual services suppliers). Surveys are particularly relevant given that they can be specially tailored, in particular in the case of trade in services surveys. Inward FATS surveys, if they include variables measuring exports and imports of services of the foreign affiliate could possibly include information on the persons (and their numbers) who provide the services as employed contractual services suppliers. For outgoing persons, outward FATS surveys may provide information on employees on service contracts working in the affiliate located abroad. The number of intracorporate transferees/foreign persons directly recruited by affiliates and possibly that of services sellers could also be captured through inward and outward FATS surveys. In particular, outward FATS surveys could allow the identification of employees of the parent company who work in the affiliate as intracorporate employees. 

11.32.    As in the case of mode 2 persons, border and household surveys are also an interesting source both for all types of incoming and outgoing employees and for self-employed mode 4 persons. Information regarding residence, as well as identification of the employer-employee relationship of the individuals, will be crucial as household surveys cover only resident persons. Finally, as for mode 2, the data will most probably need to be combined, in particular for compiling breakdowns, to obtain relevant data on the number of mode 4 movements/persons, e.g., through the use of data on characteristics sourced from surveys of persons or households, combined with counts of those crossing borders. Data from partner countries may be particularly useful for capturing the relevant information for sending countries. 



Next: E. Country experiences (Chapter 11)