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C.2.  Movements and stays of persons related to mode 2 

16.33.        The potential sources for quantitative data on mode 2 movements and stays are, in most cases, closely related to the tourism/travel data collection and compilation mechanism. Household surveys, including labour force surveys, can capture information on individuals who have travelled abroad (outbound flows). Border or passenger surveys could be used to gather information on persons who have travelled abroad (outbound flows) as well as those who have travelled to the compiling country (inbound flows). Those will mainly provide information on the characteristics of the travel/trips, while border counts (or counts in ports of entry-departure) will provide figures on the number of entries or departures. As described in the previous section, data from that source could also be used to satisfy some mode 4 information needs. Chapter 7 further describes data collection through surveys of households and persons. Administrative sources could be used in that context, although it may be difficult to clearly identify the categories of interest (see chapter 9). Enterprise surveys could also be used to obtain mode 2 demand side statistics (if employers are asked to report on the travel abroad of their employees), but most likely they will be used to generate supply side data (surveys targeting accommodation services, tourism attractions or such specific services sectors as health or education establishments). Other sources may also be of interest, depending on the situation of countries. A data model could be used to combine  information from multiple sources to obtain mode 2 statistics with relevant breakdowns (see chapter 17). A comparison of data sources by purpose of mode 2 movement/stay is provided in chapter 11.

16.34.        Mode 2 quantitative data should be compiled for inbound and outbound flows and stocks as follows: 

Outbound: 

(a) Flows:   the number of natural persons of the compiling country who departed to other countries to consume services, as well as the number of their trips;

(b) Stocks:   the number of natural persons of the compiling country who were present in other countries at a certain point in time in the reference period (e.g., beginning, middle or end of the period). 

Inbound:  

(a) Flows:  the number of natural persons of other countries who arrived in the compiling country to consume services, as well as the number of their trips;

(b) Stocks:  the number of natural persons of other countries who were present in the compiling country at a certain point in time in the reference period (e.g., beginning, middle or end of the period). 

The information on the number of inbound/outbound flows (persons and trips) and stocks (persons) must be broken down by:

(a) Country of destination (outbound) or origin (inbound);

(b) Purpose of stay abroad (outbound) or in the compiling country (inbound);

(c) Types of (services) products consumed;

(d) Duration (length of stay). 

In the majority of cases, mode 2 stock information will be of minor interest to users/policy makers. It is, therefore, good practice for compilers to identify with users the relevant categories of persons/purposes for which stays will most probably be of a more long-lasting nature and, consequently, stock data of more interest, for example, in the case of students. 

16.35.        Compilers should select the services classification for use in the context of movements of natural persons under mode 2, depending on their needs and circumstances, but are advised to do so on a basis compatible with EBOPS 2010 (in particular, the travel breakdown by product consumed) to facilitate the analysis of that information as well as link, if possible and relevant, with the compilation of some BOP services items and FATS. In view of the information needs related to mode 2 and tourism, it is also advised that countries build their breakdowns in a way that is useful for tourism statistics. Such an integrated approach will strengthen the institutional arrangements in data collection and compilation and ensure a more efficient use of limited statistical resources.

16.36.        For the purposes of stay abroad or in the compiling country, compilers are advised, as a starting point, to make use of the classification of purposes of tourism trip provided in IRTS 2008. That classification contains two main groups of purposes: (a) personal and (b) business and professional. IRTS 2008 suggests a breakdown of the first group into holidays, leisure and recreation; visiting friends and relatives; education and training; health and medical care; religion/pilgrimages; shopping; transit; and other. The second group is not subdivided.[1] Note that, from the perspective of the present Guide, it may also be useful to gather information on purposes other than tourism-related (e.g., education purposes for more than one year, or those who are temporarily abroad for employment purposes).

16.37.        Compilation of data on an annual basis should serve most information needs. However, it may also be of interest to obtain some information for shorter periods, for instance, on a quarterly basis, at least for some main aggregates. That would, in principle, also be linked to the needs of other statistical domains (e.g., tourism).

16.38.        The table below shows an example for presenting data on mode 2 number of persons, mainly relating to tourism purposes. It is drawn from the UNWTO Compendium of Tourism Statistics. An extension that would serve the needs identified in MSITS 2010 would gather information on purposes other than tourism-related (e.g., education purposes for more than one year, or those who are temporarily abroad for employment purposes).

 

 


[1] See ITRS 2008, chap. 3, sect. B.1 for more information.