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4.69.     Tourism expenditure (TE), and tourism consumption (TC) appear to have a similar formal definition, namely, “the acquisition of consumption goods and services as well as valuables for own use or to give away, for and during tourism trips”. However, whereas tourism expenditure is restricted to the amount paid for such acquisition (that is, it includes only those expenditures that involve a payment), tourism consumption also includes imputed transactions, that is, transactions that although actual, do not involve the existence of a monetary flow as a counterpart. Consequently, as such transactions cannot be readily observed, their amount has to be calculated. 

4.70.     The following list distinguishes the concepts associated with tourism expenditure from those associated with tourism consumption. To clarify each one of these concepts, it is proposed as a first reference aimed at assisting compilers.

 

Concept

Classification (conceptual)

Actual inclusion

Comment

Monetary expenditure on goods and services paid by the visitor out of his or her own pocket

TE

Yes

 

Direct expenditure by the visitor refunded by a third party in the case of:

 

 

 

  • A business (employee on business trip)

TE

Yes

 

  • Another household

TE

Yes

 

  • The social insurance system

TE

Yes

 

Partial payment by the beneficiary for the individual services provided by Government and NPISH

 

 

 

  • Education

TE

Yes

 

  • Health

TE

Yes

 

  • Museums

TE

Yes

 

  • Performing arts

TE

Yes

 

  • Other

TE

Yes

 

Out-of-pocket portions of the services provided to employees or others on tourism trips by businesses, such as:

 

 

 

  • Free or quasi-free transport provided, for instance, by airlines to their employees and their family

TE

Yes

 

  • Payment due by employees and their family permitted to spend holidays in the holiday residences of businesses

TE

Yes

 

  • Supplementary payments due by individuals invited by businesses to attend sports or any other events

TE

Yes

 

Estimation of the additional expenditure on purchased goods and services incurred by family and friends associated with receiving visitors.

TE

No

Impossible to obtain this information: in practice, not included in National Accounts

Imputed housing services associated to owned vacation homes (timeshares and others…)

TC

Yes

 

Consumption of goods produced for own final use in vacation homes, caught (fish) or hunted (game) for recreation purpose while on tourism trip

TC

Yes

 

Acquisition of tourism single-purpose consumer durables outside the context of a trip

TE

Yes

 

Cost less partial payment by the beneficiary for the individual services provided by Government and NPISH

 

 

 

  • Education

TC

Yes

 

  • Health

TC

Yes

 

  • Museums

TC

Yes

 

  • Performing arts

TC

Yes

 

  • Other

TC

Yes

 

Actual expenditure of businesses net of out-of- pocket portions for the services provided to employees or others on tourism trips, such as:

 

 

 

  • Actual cost on transportation, hotels, restaurants and other expenditure related to business trips taken by employees and usually covered by per diem 

TE

Yes

Visitors are required to make this estimation in surveys

  • Cost of incentive trips paid by businesses for their employees

TE

Yes

Visitors are required to make this estimation in surveys

  • Cost for the business of free or quasi-free transport provided, for instance, by airlines to their employees and their family

TC

Yes

 

  • Value of services provided by holiday residences of businesses in favour of their employees

TC

Yes

 

  • Invitations by businesses to clients or providers to attend sports or any other events

TE

Yes

On assumption that “invitations” means “value of services provided or paid for by”