The Global Forum website tries to keep track of the ever changing landscape of trade analysis, measurement of trade and trade statistics. The site keeps a database of links to over 150 relevant publications, reports, articles and speeches.


The full list of featured publications can be found HERE.


2009 Research Report Center for Economic Studies and Research Data Centers

U.S. Census Bureau 2010
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The Center for Economic Studies (CES) and the U.S. Census Bureau’s network of Research Data Centers (RDCs) host research on a broad range of topics in demography, economics, geography, sociology, and other social sciences. Each year, our annual research report highlights findings from different topics and fields… more »

21st Meeting of the Wiesbaden Group on Business Registers

International Roundtable on Business Survey Frames
Andreas Lindner Florian Eberth 2008

n the context of globalization, one of the main challenging development areas for external trade statistics is to link them more closely to other statistics. The linkage of trade statistics with business statistics allows to measure, on the one hand, the contribution of real economic sectors to trading, and on the other hand, to complement business data with detailed information on trade, which is traditionally not part of business statistics... more »

A Canadian Approach to Apparel Global Value Chain

Industry Canada 2008
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The Canadian apparel has long been considered a global player. For years, many Canadian companies have been producing offshore and have seized on preferencial access to United States (US) markets to export their products. However until recently, the Canadian apparel industry also operated under protectionism that allowed it to thrive within North America… more »

A Global Value Chains: Impacts and Implications

Trade Policy Research 2011
Aaron Sydor 2011
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 It is increasingly rare that a good or a service is entirely produced at one location and then exported to a final consumer. Rather, production of a good or even service involves an increasingly complex process with intermediate inputs and supporting activities sourced globally from wherever it is most efficient to do so. These complex international production arrangements have come to be known as global value chains (GVCs)... more »

A New Integrated System of Business Micro-data

M. Grazzi R. Sanzo A. Secchi A. Zeli 2009
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Micro.3 is the outcome of a joint collaboration ISTAT-LEM. The development of MICRO.3 took a considerable amount of time and involved the work of researchers at several units at ISTAT together with collaboration of LEM members during the various phases of the project. What made the project even more demanding was the necessity to bridge together data coming from different sources. Ofcourse, since Micro.3 and the related database contain census data collected by ISTAT it can only be accessed at ISTAT facilities in Rome on the basis of a research agreement... more »

A Sorted Tale of Globalization

White Collar Jobs and the Rise of Service Offshoring
Runjuan Liu Daniel Trefler 2011

We study how the rise of trade in services with China and India has impacted U.S. labour markets. The topic has two understudied aspects: it deals with service trade (most studies deal with manufacturing trade) and it examines the historical first of U.S. workers competing with educated but low-wage foreign workers. Our empirical agenda is made complicated by the endogeneity of service imports and the endogenous sorting of workers across occupations... more »

Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) the World Travel and Tourism Council the Earth Council 1997

This is a scanned document. To facilitate the use of this publication we have divided it into various parts. To browse all chapters of that book, please go to the Table of Contents on the left hand navigation bar. A second printing makes this essential environment publication newly available for the entire tourism sector. Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry outlines practical steps that governments and private tourism companies can take to implement the goals of the Rio Earth Summit and make the future of the tourism sector and our entire planet more sustainable. A joint publication of WTO, the World Travel & Tourism Council, and the Earth Council, this book is packed with examples of good environmental practice and provides the guidelines needed to convert well-meaning theories about sustainability into reality. more »

An Alternative Theory of the Plant Size Distribution with an Application to Trade


There is wide variation in the sizes of manufacturing plants, even within the most narrowly defined industry classifications used by statistical agencies. Standard theories attribute all such size differences to productivity differences. This paper develops an alternative theory in which industries are made up of large plants producing standardized goods and small plants making custom or specialty goods. It uses confidential Census data to estimate the parameters of the model, including estimates... more »

An Anatomy of International Trade

Evidence from French firms
Jonathan Eaton Samuel Kortu Francis Kramarz 2008

We examine the sales of French manufacturing firms in 113 destinations, including France itself. Several regularities stand out: (1) the number of French firms selling to a market, relative to French market share, increases systematically with market size; (2) sales distributions are very similar across markets of very different size and extent of French participation; (3) average sales in France rise very systematically with selling to less popular markets and to more markets... more »

An Overview of U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis Statistics on Multinational Companies


Statistics on multinational companies (MNC’s) may be grouped into two broad categories: (1) those that pertain to cross-border transactions and positions between direct investors and direct investment enterprises (balance of payments and direct investment position data), and (2) those that pertain to MNC operations more broadly, including statistics on their domestic as well as international activities (financial and operating data)... more »

Assessing Systemic Trade Interconnectedness

An Empirical Approach
Luca Errico Alexander Massara 2011

The paper focuses on systemically important jurisdictions in the global trade network, complementing recent IMF work on systemically important financial sectors. Using the IMF’s Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS) database and network analysis, the paper develops a framework for ranking jurisdictions based on trade size and trade nterconnectedness indicators using data for 2000 and 2010. The results show a near perfect overlap between the top 25 systemically important trade and financial jurisdictions, suggesting that these ought to be the focus of risk-based surveillance on cross-border spillovers and contagion. In addition, a number of extensions to the approach are developed that can provide a better understanding of trade dynamics at the bilateral, regional, and global levels. more »

Assessment of the results achieved in realizing aims and objectives of the International Year of Ecotourism

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2003

The following report was prepared by the World Tourism Organization in response to Economic and Social Council resolution 1998/40 and General Assembly resolution A/RES/53/200. It outlines the activities undertaken by States members and major international organizations in preparation for, and during the International Year of Ecotourism (IYE). The report presents, in its first part, all the activities carried out by WTO, UNEP and other international organizations in preparation for and during the IYE. In a second part, this report synthesises the activities undertaken by governments in the framework of the International Year of Ecotourism. This information is structured according to six main themes: national policy, activities and publications, stakeholders participation and support, awareness, regulation and cooperation. The last part of the report provides detailed information on follow-up activities and outlines recommendations for further action. more »

Automotive Industry and Crisis

Effects of the Crisis on the Automotive Industry in Developing Countries
Timothy Sturgeon Johannes Van Biesebroeck 2010

This paper applies global value chain analysis to study recent trends in the global automotive industry. The authors pay special attention to the effects of the recent economic crisis on the industry in developing countries. The principal finding is that the crisis has accelerated precrisis trends toward greater importance of the industry in the South. More rapid growth of car ownership is the impetus, but the co-location and close interaction of suppliers and lead firms in this industry is an important catalyst… more »

Automotive Industry Canada

A Global Value Chain Analysis
Timothy Sturgeon Johannes Van Biesebroeck Gary Gereffi 2007

The automotive industry is Canada’s most important manufacturing and export sector. In 2005, Canada’s automotive industry employed 7.7 percent of the manufacturing workforce and accounted for nearly a third of manufactured goods exports. Canada’s twelve high-volume final assembly plants directly employed more than 51,000 workers.More than two and a half million vehicles were produced, valued at $69.8 billion, of which nearly 85% was exported… more »

Awards for Improving the Coastal Environment

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) oundation for Environmental Education in Europe (FEEE) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 1997

A joint publication of the World Tourism Organization, the Foundation for Environmental Education in Europe (FEEE), and UNEP, this book outlines Europe’s Blue Flag campaign. It explains how Blue Flag assists the tourism sector and at the same time helps to improve the coastal environment. The book includes chapters on the history of the Blue Flag campaign, how the campaign is financed and monitored, and criteria and lessons which can be learned from the European experience. It also looks at the differences between European beaches and those in other parts of the world and explains how the Blue Flag programme can be adapted to regions outside of Europe. more »

Bridging Trade Statistics with Business Statistics

Eurostat's experiences of register linkages
Eurostat 2008

Trade and business statistics are based on different concepts and classification, thus using them separately may provide incoherent basis for analysing the effects of external trade on production, employment and enterprises' performances… more »

Business Dynamics Statistics Briefing

Where have all the young firms gone?
John Haltiwanger Ron Jarmin Javier Miranda 2012

The Census Bureau’s Business Dynamics Statistics (BDS)2 provides data on business dynamics for U.S. firms and establishments with paid employees.This briefing highlights some key features of the most recent BDS update, which now has data through 2010. As the most complete public-use dataset allowing for the analysis of business dynamics in the United States, the BDS is a key source of knowledge about the changing state, as well as the national, economy... more »

Can Tourism Encourage Better Export Performance and Diversification in Nepal?

Jose Reis Gonzalo Varela 2013

Entering and successfully surviving in export markets is a costly process for firms. Key steps for success include learning about the existence of foreign demand, determining the production costs of exportable goods, building a high-quality reputation, succeeding in product branding to reduce competitive pressures, constant upgrading of quality standards to better serve demanding international clients, and remaining competitive with other players in the global marketplace. Drawing on the findings of recent research (Reis and Varela 2013), this note argues that tourism can help alleviate some of these costs by providing a relatively inexpensive platform for cost discovery and acting as a low-cost in-house trade fair, accessible to all domestic producers. more »

Canada's State of Trade

Trade and Investment Update - 2010
DFAIT 2010
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2009 was a landmark year. The global economy suffered the worst downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s, enduring dramatic shifts in global economic and financial markets in an extraordinarily challenging environment The banking system teetered on the abyss, tested by weak credit markets, a collapse in equity markets, and heightened requirements for liquidity and capital. FromAugust 2008 through mid-2009 output contracted... more »

Carry-Along Trade

Andrew Bernard Emily J. Blanchardz Ilke Van Beverenx Hylke Vandenbussche 2012

This paper provides an integrated view of globally engaged US firms by exploring a newly developed dataset that links US international trade transactions to longitudinal data on US enterprises. These data permit examination of a number of new dimensions of firm activity, including how many products firms trade, how many countries firms trade with, the characteristics of those countries, the concentration of trade across firms, whether firms transact at arm’s length or with related parties, and whether firms import as well as export... more »

Changing the Industrial Geography in Asia

The Impact of China and India
Shahid Yusuf Kaoru Nabeshima 2010
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A great burst of globalization brought the 20th century to a close, creating upheaval in the world economy from roughly 1995 to 2008. And now, with the new century barely commenced, a second upheaval is in the offing following the severe financial crisis that plunged the global economy into recession in 2008-09. The first upheaval witnessed a massive migration of manufacturing and certain business services that transformed Asia into the industrial heartland of the world. The second upheaval will likely consolidate Asia's industrial preeminence and could result in a concentration of industrial activities in the two most populous and fastest growing Asian economies - China and India... more »

China and the Manufacturing Exports of Other Developing Countries

Gordon Hanson Raymond Robertson 2008

The explosive growth of China’s economy has been extraordinary. Between 1990 and 2005, China’s exports increased by 25 times in real terms, compared to an increase of about four times in the 12 largest exporting nations .As of 2005, China’s exports accounted for 25% of the total exports of all countries outside of the top 12… more »

Climate Change and Tourism

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2003

This publication was prepared as a result of the First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism which was held on 9-11 April 2003 in Djerba, Tunisia. It includes a basic report and summaries of the discussions and sessions on the consequences, opportunities and risks that the tourism sector is facing as a result of changes in world’s climate. The publication includes the Djerba Declaration on Tourism and Climate Change and the Agenda of Action. more »

Climate Change and Tourism - Responding to Global Challenges

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 2008

The Report on "Climate Change and Tourism - Responding to Global Challenges" that was commissioned to an international team of experts by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), provides a synthesis of the state of knowledge about current and likely future impacts of climate change on tourism destinations around the world, possible implications for tourist demand, current levels and trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the tourism sector. It gives an overview of policy and management responses of adaptation to climate change and mitigation of tourism's emissions. The Report also summarizes the main results of a series of events focused on climate change and tourism, which took place in the second of half of 2007. more »

Compressed Development in East Asia

Hugh Whittaker Tianbiao Zhu Timothy J. Sturgeon Mon Han Tsai Toshie Okita 2007

In this paper we argue that the path of economic development for would-be developers has changed fundamentally since the 1980s. Focusing on East Asia, we contend that the path followed by ‘late developers’ has shifted to one that can best be described as ‘compressed development.’ We introduce the notion of compressed development to highlight the new policy dilemmas and choices that developing countries face today, which we characterize as ‘policy stretch.’… more »

CONCEPT NOTE – Towards the Development of the 10YFP Sustainable Tourism Programme

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2014

This draft concept note for the development of the Sustainable Tourism Programme of the 10YFP will be finalized through an extensive global multi-stakeholder consultation process. This document is based on a stocktaking exercise and global survey on existing data and initiatives on sustainable tourism, engaging nearly 400 actors, as well as relevant UN resolutions and programmes. This document provides a general definition of sustainable tourism, presents the concept of sustainable consumption and production, and summarizes the challenges and opportunities to achieve sustainable tourism. The concept note outlines a vision and goal for the Sustainable Tourism Programme, as well as proposed programme areas for discussion and agreement. These documents will provide the basis for completing the 10YFP programme template, which will be officially submitted to the 10YFP Secretariat for a further public consultation, followed by approval by the 10YFP Board and official launch. more »

Development in an Interdependent World: old issues, new directions?

John Toye 2010

Why does development matter? It matters because we aspire to a more equal world, in which the possibilities of living well are available to all, and not just to a minority of the world’s population. That aspiration requires the convergence of living standards across the globe. Convergence in turn requires the economic development of countries with low standards of living and, in view of the threat of climate change caused by carbon emissions, paths of convergence that are consistent with a low-carbon future for our planet… more »

Dutch Exports Radar: explanatory notes

Floris van Ruth 2009

What is the Exports Radar? The Exports Radar is an instrument developed by Statistics Netherlands to analyse developments in exports of goods and place them in some sort of context. On the basis of six indicators – selected on the basis of an econometric study - the radar monitors whether circumstances have developed favourably or unfavourably for Dutch exports… more »

Economic Integration, Inequality and Growth: theory and comparative assessment

Giovanni Andrea Cornia 2010

In every respect, the world economy is far more integrated today than in 1980, the conventional year used to mark the beginning of the current globalization. Such growing economic, social, political and cultural integration is to a large extent the result of endogenous changes in the field of transport, information, and telecommunication technologies and in demographic trends… more »

Enhancing Surveillance: Interconnectedness and Clusters


The global crisis of 2008–09 and its ongoing aftershocks have focused attention on the possible risks associated with global interconnectedness. Absent a satisfactory theory and empirics on the relationships among interconnectedness, stability, and policies, however, following through on the calls in the Triennial Surveillance Review for ncorporating interconnectedness into the Fund’s policy and risk analysis is challenging. This paper characterizes the architecture of cross-border trade and financial interconnectedness and points to how it might inform the Fund’s work. more »

Enhancing surveillance: Interconnectedness and Clusters

Background document

This note provides an overview of the theoretical and empirical literature in the implications of greater trade and financial integration for the volatility and sychronization of business cycles. more »

Estimating the Impact of Trade and Offshoring on American Workers using the Current Population Surveys

Avraham Ebenstein Ann Harrison Margaret McMillan Shannon Phillips 2009

We link industry-level data on trade and offshoring with individual-level worker data from the Current Population Surveys. We find that occupational exposure to globalization is associated with larger wage effects than industry exposure. This effect has been overlooked because it operates between rather than within sectors of the economy. We also find that globalization is associated with a reallocation of workers across sectors and occupations... more »

Eurostat Manual on Business Demographic Statistics

Eurostat OECD 2008
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Demand for statistics on business demography has grown and developed considerably in recent years. Data on births and deaths of enterprises, their life expectancy and the important role they play in economic growth and productivity, as well as the information they provide for tackling social demographic issues, are increasingly requested by policy makers and analysts alike... more »

Export Prices of US Firms

James Harrigan Xiangjun Ma Victor Shlychkov 2011

Using confidential firm-level data from the United States in 2002, we show that exporting firms charge prices for narrowly defined goods that differ substantially with the characteristics of firms and export markets. We control for selection into export markets using a three-stage estimator. We have three main results. First, we find that highly productive and skill-intensive firms charge higher prices, while capital-intensive firms charge lower prices... more »

Exports, Borders, Distance and Plant Size

Thomas J. Holmes John J. Stevens 2010

The fact that large manufacturing plants export relatively more than small plants has been at the foundation of much work in the international trade literature. We examine this fact using Census micro data on plant shipments from the Commodity Flow Survey. We show the fact is not entirely an international trade phenomenon; part of it can be accounted for by the effect of distance, distinct from any border effect... more »

External Trade Statistics by Enterprise Characteristics 2009

Statistics Turkey 2010

There were 47 352 enterprises in exports, 51 627 in imports. For exports, the proportion of the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME’s) which had 0-249 employees, was 59,8% and 40,1% for imports. In 2009, the rate of micro enterprises (0 -9 employees) was 17,3%, small enterprises (10- 49 employees) was 25,1%, medium-sized enterprises (50-249 employees) was 17,4% and large enterprises (250+) was 39,8% in exports... more »

External Trade Statistics by Enterprise Characteristics 2011

Statistics Turkey 2011

International trade statistics are among the most consulted statistics by public and private users. Throughout their long history, their basic character has remained unchanged. Their purpose is to answer questions like “which products countries are importing from or exporting to other countries?” However, it has been more difficult to reply a question “what kind of businesses are behind these trade flows?” Trade statistics do not present by nature any explicit information on the characteristics of traders... more »

Facts and Fictions in International Trade Economics

Pascal Lamy 2010

Economists have long analysed and helped us understand trade, why nations needed it to prosper, and what governments had to do to reap the gains while managing the costs. The many theories you and your predecessors have developed leave no doubt about the importance of trade to growth and economic development... more »

FATS Recommendations Manual

Eurostat 2007
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This manual provides a common methodological framework for anyone working on the collection, compilation, transmission and analysis of FATS. As such, it will make significant contributions to data quality and comparability. The target audience are FATS compilers, including statisticians in National Statistical Institutes, National Central Banks, Eurostat and other international organisations. The manual can be used also by users as background information... more »

Firm Level Analysis of International Trade in Services

Patricia Walter Rene Dell’mour 2010

Balance of payments statistics serve as the common basis for analyzing cross-border trade in services, providing information about exports and imports by individual countries or by economic or monetary areas, specified by service categories and partner countries... more »

Firm Level Analysis of Trade in Services Statistics

The Case of Austria
Patricia Walter 2009

Balance of payments statistics serve as the common basis for analyzing cross-border trade in services, providing information about exports and imports by individual countries or by economic or monetary areas, specified by service categories and partner countries. However, balance of payments statistics do not deliver insight into the facts that determine trade flows as it is not countries who trade services but corporations... more »

Firms in International Trade

Andrew B. Bernard J. Bradford Jensen Stephen J. Redding Peter K. Schott 2007

Despite the fact that importing and exporting are extremely rare firm activities, economists generally devote little attention to the role of firms when discussing international trade. This paper summarizes key differences between trading and non-trading firms, demonstrates how these differences present a challenge to standard trade models and shows how recent “heterogeneous-firm” models of international trade address these challenges... more »

From Flying Geese to Leading Dragons

New Opportunities and Strategies for Structural Transformation in developing countries
Justin Li 2011

When the World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) was established in 1984 as the first research and training center of the United Nations University under the visionary leadership of then Secretary General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, its mandate was set out quite clearly: ―To undertake multidisciplinary research and policy analysis on structural changes affecting the living conditions of the world's poorest people; To provide a forum for professional interaction and the advocacy of policies leading to robust, equitable and environmentally sustainable growth; and To promote capacity strengthening and training for scholars and government officials in the field of economic and social policy making.‖ Since then, WIDER has contributed enormously to the strengthening of the development knowledge. more »

G20 Trade Finance Experts Group April Report 2010

G-20 2010

The day-to-day international trade in goods and services is a vital part of a well functioning global economy. Given the large share of trade transactions involving some sort of credit, either insurance or guarantee, it is clear that trade finance provides the necessary liquidity and security to complete transactions between buyers and sellers around the globe. The financial crisis of 2008-2009 brought a worldwide shrinkage of available financing and a somewhat smaller decline… more »

Getting the Numbers Right

International Engineering Education in the United States, China, and India

This article challenges the commonly cited statistics for engineering graduates in the United States, China, and India. Our research shows that the gap between the number of engineers and related technology specialists produced in the United States versus those in India and China is smaller than previously reported, and the United States remains a leading source of high-quality global engineering talent. Furthermore, engineering graduates in China and India face the prospect of substantial unemployment... more »

Give Credit Where the Credit is Due

Tracing value added in global production chains
Robert Koopman William Powers Shang-Jin Wei 2011

This paper provides both a conceptual framework for decomposing a country’s gross exports into value-added components by source and a new bilateral database on value-added trade. Our parsimonious framework integrates all previous measures of vertical specialization and value-added trade in the literature. To illustrate the potential of the decomposition, we present a number of applications including re-computing revealed comparative advantages... more »

Global Perspectives on the Seoul G-20 Summit

Think Tank 20 2010
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In November 2010, G-20 leaders meet in Seoul with Korea as the host—the first time that an emerging or newly industrialized country chairs the meeting. Opinion on what the G-20 has achieved since it started to meet at leaders’ level two years ago is divided. Many focus on the actual summit meetings and on the fact that it has been hard to achieve concrete agreement on key policy issues. No doubt the G-20 is also threatened by the syndrome of grand declarations with weak follow up that we already observed during G7 meetings in the past… more »

Global Production Networks and Employment

A Developing Country Perspective
Ben Shepherd Susan Stone 2013

This paper provides evidence of the links between Global Value Chains (GVCs) and labour market outcomes, focusing on developing economies. The literature generally indicates that firms with international linkages—which we use here as a proxy for GVC involvement—tend to employ more workers, pay higher wages, and employ more skilled workers than firms that deal exclusively with the domestic market. Our results are consistent with existing evidence found in developed economies, with internationalised firms tending to hire more workers and pay higher wages in developing economies as well... more »

Global Trade in Services: Fear, Facts and Offshoring

Bradford Jensen 2011
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The service sector is large and growing. Additionally, international trade in services is growing rapidly. Yet there is a dearth of empirical research on the size, scope and potential impact of services trade. The underlying source of this gap is well-known—official statistics on the service sector in general, and trade in services in particular, lack the level of detail available for the manufacturing sector in many dimensions... more »

Global Value Chains and Developing Country Employment

A Literature Review
Ben Shepherd 2013

This paper provides a review of the available literature on global value chains (GVCs) and employment markets in developing countries. Due to the difficulty of observing intra-GVC transactions, there is very little direct empirical work on GVCs and labour markets. However, it is possible to extrapolate from the extensive empirical work already undertaken on firm internationalisation and labour markets to draw inferences as to the likely impacts of GVCs. The review therefore focuses on the labour market impacts of three processes that lie at the core of GVC development: importing, exporting, and foreign direct investment (FDI)... more »

Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World

A Development Perspective
Olivier Cattaneo Gary Gereffi Cornelia Staritz 2010
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The global economic crisis of 2008–09 has revealed the interdependence of the world economy. The financial crisis originated in the United States, but the resulting economic downturn quickly spread to the rest of the world. Trade, along with finance, was one of the main vectors of transmission of the crisis. In 2009, there was a massive contraction in global trade—minus 13 percent. The contraction was largely a reflection of a drop in demand, especially for durable goods… more »

Globalization and Official Statistics

Robin Lynch 2007
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Globalisation is the shrinking of distance and the reduction of trade boundaries in the world economy. Companies operate across national boundaries and consumers purchase from suppliers half-way across the world. Sometimes the purchaser will have no clear idea of the supplying country if the product is supplied via the internet… more »

Globalization and trade flows: what you see is not what you get

Andreas Maurer Christophe Degain 2010

The trade collapse that followed the recent financial crisis has led to a renewed interest on the measurement issues affecting international merchandise trade statistics in the new globalized economy. The international fragmentation of industrial production blurs the concept of country of origin and calls for the production of new statistics on the domestic content of exports... more »

Globalization Crises, Trade and Development in Vietnam

Philip Abbott Finn Tarp 2011

Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises—the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterization as an example of export-led growth and highlights the role of the state, particularly in maintaining and influencing investment… more »

Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 1998

This enlarged and revised edition of WTO’s most popular publication: Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners, presents concepts, principles and techniques for planning and developing tourism and includes sections on managing environmental and socio-economic impacts at the local level. It also contains numerous examples of sustainable tourism best practices readily adaptable to the particular conditions and level of development of each destination. more »

GVC and Technological Capabilities

A Framework to Study Learning and Innovation in Developing Countries
Andrea Morrison Carlo Pietrobelli Roberta Rabellotti 2007

This paper presents a critical review of the Global Value Chain literature in light of the “Technological Capabilities” approach to innovation in LDCs. Participation in GVC is beneficial for firms in LDCs, which are bound to source technology internationally. However, the issues of learning and technological efforts at the firm-level remain largely uncovered by the GVC literature… more »

GVC in Electronics Industry

Was the Crisis a Window of Opportunity for Developing Countries?
Timothy Sturgeon Momoko Kawakami 2010

This paper presents evidence of the importance of electronics global value chains (GVCs) in the global economy, and discusses the effects of the recent economic crisis on the industry. The analysis focuses on how information is exchanged and introduces the concept of “value chain modularity.” The authors identify three key firm level actors—lead firms, contract manufacturers, and platform leaders—and discuss their development, or “coevolution” in the context of global integration… more »

GVC: Preliminary Evidence & Policy Issues March

OECD 2011

This paper aims to develop a storyline for the WPGI/CIIE work on global value chains (GVCs) for the PWB of 2011-2012, by bringing together the empirical evidence and analytical research on GVCs and analyzing new policy issues. The objective of the WPGI activities on GVCs is to develop policy relevant analysis and provide analytical support for the policy discussion in the CIIE. The work on GVCs will be undertaken in close coordination with the work on ‘New Sources of Growth’ given the complementarities between the two projects… more »

Handbook of Input-Output Table Compilation and Analysis

United Nations 1999
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The Statistical Commission of the United Nations has been concerned with conceptual or practical difficulties in the implementation of the System of National Accounts (SNA) since it was introduced in 1968. At its 1983 session, the Commission agreed that the SNA should be revised with the specific objectives of clarifying it and harmonizing it with related statistical systems rather than modifying it... more »

Handbook on compilation of BES in Africa

DESA 2009
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Over the years, the United Nations Statistical Commission has considered a number of conceptual and practical issues pertinent to the compilation of economic statistics. The Commission has also been concerned with the capacity of national statistical systems to meet the high demand for timely economic statistics of high quality, produced in the most cost effective manner... more »

Handbook on Natural Disaster Reduction in Tourist Areas

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 1998

Nowadays tourism involves the movement of millions of people to virtually all countries on the surface of this globe. Quite often tourism developments are located in areas exposed to, or likely to be exposed to, sudden-onset natural disasters, in particular beach and coastal areas, river valleys and mountain regions. If these developments are hit by natural disasters, the image of the tourist destination will suffer.This handbook, jointly produced by WTO and WMO experts, demonstrates how to combat natural disasters in tourist areas and mitigate their impacts. It guides the reader through disaster onset to post-disaster reconstruction and the relaunching of a tourist destination. more »

High-tech Trade by Enterprise Characteristics

Alexander Loschky Karo Nuortila 2009

Until now two approaches existed to identify high-tech foreign trade: The product approach which uses a list of goods classified as high-tech products2 and the sectoral approach which identifies the trade by the sectors classified as high-tech industries. The current nomenclature of the sectoral approach stems from an investigation done by Thomas Hatzichronoglou presented in 1997 by the OECD and was subsequently updated in 2005 and reviewed by the EU Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) in 2008… more »

How Much Does Gravity Deflect Services Trade?

James E. Anderson 2012

Simple measures show that there is proportionally less international trade in services than in goods, and survey evidence suggests that border barriers are important. But much service production is extremely localized within countries, reducing international trade independently of border barriers and thus befogging attempts to see the size of border barriers. The fog is pushed back in this paper by measuring the e ects of gravity on the services trade of Canada's provinces from 1997 to 2007... more »

How Much of Chinese Exports is Really Made In China?

Assessing Domestic Value-Added When Processing Trade is Pervasive
Robert Koopman Zhi Wang Shang-Jin Wei 2008

As China's export juggernaut employs many imported inputs, there are many policy questions for which it is crucial to know the extent of domestic and foreign value added in its exports. The best known approach - the concept of "vertical specialization" proposed by Hummels, Ishii and Yi (2001) - is not appropriate for countries that engage actively in tariff/tax-favored processing exports such as China, Mexico, and Vietnam. We develop a general formula for computing domestic and foreign contents when processing exports are pervasive… more »

How Will Changes in Globalization Impact Growth in South Asia?

Ejaz Ghani Rahul Anand 2009

The current global crisis may change globalization itself, as both developed and developing countries adjust to global imbalances that contributed to the crisis. Will these changes help or hinder economic recovery and growth in South Asia? This is the focus of this paper. The three models of globalization--trade, capital, and economic management--may not be the same in the future... more »

Impact of Services Liberalization on Industry Productivity, Exports and Development

David Tarr 2012

Services now constitute about 70 percent of global GDP.2 Moreover, foreign direct investment (FDI) flows have shifted toward services, and now constitute almost half of total FDI flows in developing countries.3 Recognizing their importance and the need to have special rules to treat trade in services, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) was incorporated into the World Trade Organization (WTO) when it was formed in the mid-1990s... more »

Imported Intermediate Inputs and Domestic Product Growth: Evidence from India

Pinelopi K. Goldberg Amit Khandelwal Nina Pavcnik Petia Topalova 2008

New goods play a central role in many trade and growth models. We use detailed trade and firm-level data from a large developing economy—India—to investigate the relationship between declines in trade costs, the imports of intermediate inputs and domestic firm product scope. We estimate substantial static gains from trade through access to new imported inputs... more »

Importers, Exporters and Multi-nationals

A Portrait of Firms in the U.S. that Trade Goods
Andrew Bernard Bradford Jensen Peter Schott 2005

A newly developed dataset permits examination of new dimensions of firm activity, including how many products firms trade, how many countries firms trade with, the characteristics of those countries, the concentration of trade across firms, whether firms transact at arm’s length or with related parties, and whether firms import as well as export. Firms that trade goods play an important role in the United States, employing more than a third of the US workforce. The most globally engaged US firms... more »

Income Distribution, Product Quality and International Trade

Pablo D. Fajgelbaum Gene M. Grossman Elhanan Helpman 2009

We develop a framework for studying trade in vertically and horizontally differentiated products. In our model, consumers with heterogeneous incomes and tastes purchase a homogeneous good as well as making a discrete choice of quality and variety of a differentiated product. The distribution of preferences in the population generates a nested logit demand structure... more »

Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations A Guidebook

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2004

WTO has been promoting the use of sustainable tourism indicators since the early 1990s, as essential instruments for policy-making, planning and management processes at destinations. The new guidebook is the most comprehensive resource on this topic, the result of an extensive study on indicator initiatives worldwide, involving 62 experts from more than 20 countries. The new guidebook describes over 40 major sustainability issues, ranging from the management of natural resources (waste, water, energy, etc.), to development control, satisfaction of tourists and host communities, preservation of cultural heritage, seasonality, economic leakages, or climate change, to mention just a few. For each issue, indicators and measurement techniques are suggested with practical information sources and examples. The publication also contains a procedure to develop destination-specific indicators, their use in tourism policy and planning processes, as well as applications in different destination types (e.g. coastal, urban, ecotourism, small communities). Numerous examples and 25 comprehensive case studies provide a wide range of experiences at the company, destination, national and regional levels from all continents. more »

Indirect Trade in Steel

Pierluigi Molajoni Adam Szewczyk 2012

This paper aims to define and develop methodologies, and to indicate use of indirect trade in steel. Indirect trade in steel – exports and imports of steel in the form of steel containing manufactured goods – is a crucial issue in steel demand estimations. Incorporating indirect trade in steel allows a more realistic picture of steel use across countries and in time... more »

World Steel

Industrial Value Chain Diagnostics - An Integrated Tool

UNIDO 2011
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Over the last decades the world has witnessed a gradual relocation of manufacturing activities from developed to developing countries, opening up new opportunities for employment, increased income and economic growth for some of the world’s poorer and less developed countries. However, the process of industrialization has not benefitted all developing countries equally. In the 2009 Industrial Development Report… more »


Intermediaries in International Trade

Direct vs. Indirect Mode
Andrew B. Bernard Marco Grazzi Chiara Tomasi 2011

This paper examines the factors that give rise to intermediaries in exporting and explores the implications for trade volumes. Export intermediaries such as wholesalers serve different markets and export different products than manufacturing exporters. In particular, high market-specific fixed costs of exporting, the (lack of) quality of the general contracting environment and product-specific factors play important roles in explaining the existence of export intermediaries... more »

International Comparative Evidence on Global Value Chains

Koen de Backer Norihiko Yamano 2012

The past decades have witnessed a rapid globalisation of economic activity which has significantly changed the outlook of the world economy. International production, trade and investments are increasingly organised within so-called global value chains (GVCs) where the different stages in the production process are located across different economies. Until now, GVCs have been largely discussed from a conceptual and theoretical view, but empirical work on international fragmentation has stayed a bit behind… more »

International Conference on Tourism, Religions and Dialogue of Cultures; Cordoba, Spain, 29-31 October 2007

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2015
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At the invitation of the Government of Spain, the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) organized the International Conference on Tourism, Religions and Dialogue of Cultures. This Conference was held in Cordoba, Spain, from 29 to 31 October 2007 in cooperation with the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce, the Junta of Andalusia and the Municipality of Cordoba. The present publication contains the speeches and presentations delivered at the Conference, as well as initiatives and case studies featured in the three panels of the event: (a) Tourism, Religions and the Dialogue of Civilizations, (b) Religious Tourism and (c) Sustainability of Religious Tourism Destinations. more »

International Fragmentation of Production and the Intrafirm Trade of U.S. Multinational Companies

Maria Borga William J. Zeile 2004

An increasingly important feature of global economic integration is trade in intermediate inputs associated with the fragmentation of production across national borders. For some goods, production has become a multinational process in which different stages are carried out in specialized plants around the globe. Materials and components produced in one country may pass through a sequence of other countries that each add value through fabrication, assembly, or other processing before a final product is delivered to consumers.… more »

International Sourcing

Moving Business Functions Abroad
Statistics Denmark Statistics Finland Statistics Netherlands Statistics Norway Statistics Sweden 2008
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The continuous globalisation of our economies confronts the national statistical offices with new challenges and user demands to measure new phenomena such as international sourcing. The increased fragmentation of the value chain resulting from the sourcing of business functions internationally is an important feature of the globalisation process... more »

International Supply Chains and Trade Elasticity in Times of Global Crisis

Hubert Escaith Nannette Lindenberg: Sébastien Miroudot 2010

The paper investigates the role of global supply chains in explaining the trade collapse of 2008-2009 and the long-term variations observed in trade elasticity. Building on the empirical results obtained from a subset of input-output matrices and the exploratory analysis of a large and diversified sample of countries, a formal model is specified to measure the respective short-term and long-term dynamics of trade elasticity… more »

International Trade: Free, Fair and Open?

Patrick Love Ralph Lattimore 2010
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Trade, like every other aspect of the economy, has been deeply affected by the global recession that started to emerge in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. As this book goes to press, we are projecting a decline in world trade for the first time since 1982. Trade is not at the origin of the crisis, but since it binds economies closely together, it helps to spread developments from one country to another – the negative developments as well as the positive… more »

Internationalisation Monitor 2009

Statistics Netherlands 2009
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EThe growing internationalisation of the production of goods and services means that national economies are becoming more and more interconnected. This process of economic globalisation is characterised by increasing international trade and foreign direct investments, and by a growing role of multinational enterprises... more »

Internationalisation Monitor 2010

Statistics Netherlands 2010
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Globalisation has become a popular and much discussed topic over the past two decades. International developments have major implications particularly for a small and open economy like the Netherlands. The recent financial and economic crisis illustrates the role the international economy plays for the Netherlands... more »

Internationalisation Monitor 2011

Statistics Netherlands 2011
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Economic globalisation is characterised by increasing international trade, foreign investment and international outsourcing. For the Netherlands, this concerns activities by Dutch multinational firms abroad as well as foreign enterprises in the Netherlands. Not only do these cross-border activities have important economic consequences, they also raise a number of questions with respect to employment... more »

Internationalisation Monitor 2012

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This fifth edition of the Internationalisation Monitor describes recent developments in international trade in goods and services, foreign direct investment, multinational enterprises, and traffic and transport. In addition, four analytical chapters provide an in-depth analysis of enterprise dynamics and the role of (increasing) internationalisation in this respect. more »

Is Mexico a Lumpy Country?

Andrew B. Bernard Raymond Robertson Peter K. Schott 2010

Courant and Deardorff (1992) show theoretically that an extremely uneven distribution of factors within a country can induce behavior at odds with overall comparative advantage.We demonstrate the importance of this insight for developing countries. We show that Mexican regions exhibit substantial variation in skill abundance, offer significantly different relative factor rewards, and produce disjoint sets of industries... more »

Italy in the World Economy

ICE Report 2009-2010
ICE 2010
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The crisis of confidence that was triggered by the bursting of the real-estate bubble in the United States in 2007 and reached its height with the failure of Lehman Brothers in September 2008 spread rapidly from the financial system to the real economy, leading to a broadly based fall in output and a collapse of world trade. In 2009 world GDP declined by 0.6 per cent,1 with a larger contraction in the first six months and a slight recovery in the third and fourth quarters... more »

Tags: Italy world trade

Joining, Upgrading and Being Competitive in Global Value Chains

A strategic framework
Cattaneo Gereffi Miroudot Taglioni 2013

In recent years, global value chains have played an increasing role in business strategies, profoundly affecting international trade and development paradigms. Global value chains now represent a major source of socio-upgrading opportunities and a new path for development. Trade, competitiveness and development policies should be reshaped accordingly to seize these opportunities and avoid the risks associated with greater participation in global value chains. This paper provides a framework and analytical tools for measuring and improving a country's performance with respect to participation in global value chains. With a clear operational focus, it provides guidance for countries willing to join, maintain participation, and/or move up global value chains. more »

Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the Current Crisis in Developing Countries

Rolph van der Hoeven 2010

The current wave of globalization starting around 1999-2000 (with the fall of the Berlin wall, with changes in the concepts of development and with the ensuing capital market liberalization following earlier undertaken trade liberalization) has profound effects on the labour market and on the employment situation of workers all over the world. These effects are in many cases accentuated by the current financial and economic crisis. The purpose of this paper is first to review some general labour market trends in this period of globalization and secondly to highlight especially the labour market trend of financial globalization... more »

Lithium-Ion Batteries

the US value chain
Marcy Lowe Saori Tokuoka Tali Trigg Gary Gereffi 2010
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The global motor vehicle industry is rapidly steering away from the internal combustion engine. Electric vehicles are increasingly attractive for their potential to reduce greenhouse gases and decrease dependence on oil. By 2020, more than half of new vehicle sales will likely consist of hybrid-electric, plug-in hybrid, and all-electric models. For automakers, the key to this huge shift will be lithium-ion batteries… more »

Making Tax Data Count

Uses in Official Statistics and Microdata Research
Michael Slyuzberg Kelly, Neil Hill, Hamish 2011

Official statistics form the basis for informed policy development and evaluation by central and local government, as well as underpinning decision making by businesses and the public. Data collected within the tax administrative system offers opportunities to complement existing sources of official statistics, to support wider uses of available data, or to minimise provider load within existing outputs... more »

Making Tourism More Sustainable - A Guide for Policy Makers

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2005

Massive growth is predicted for tourism in the forthcoming years, providing excellent opportunities for spreading prosperity but presenting considerable challenges and potential threats to the environment and local communities if not well managed. Jointly produced with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this new Guide is a basic reference book and provides a blueprint for governments to formulate and implement sustainable tourism policies. It builds on previous work of WTO and UNEP on the different aspects of sustainability. The Guide defines what sustainability means in tourism, what are the effective approaches for developing strategies and policies for more sustainable tourism, the tools that would make the policies work on the ground, and it presents selected case studies. The publication is aimed primarily at governments, at national or local level, while being also relevant to international development agencies, NGOs and the private sector to the extent that they are affected by, and can affect, tourism policies and their implementation. more »

Making Tourism Work for Small Island Developing States

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2004

For most islands, tourism is the main economic activity in terms of income generation, employment creation, and foreign exchange earnings. But due to their small size, islands are quite vulnerable to the negative environmental and social impacts that tourism can sometimes bring. That is why it is vital to plan, manage and monitor tourism development in SIDS, aiming at sustainability objectives. This WTO report presents a summary of the current status of tourism in SIDS, while providing evidence of the key importance it has for the sustainable development of many islands and for the achievement of the UN Millennium Development Goals. It also addresses the key issues that need to be considered by small island nations and provides policy orientations, guidelines and other tools to the National Tourism Authorities, the tourism industry and other tourism stakeholders in SIDS on how to develop and manage tourism in a sustainable manner for the benefit of their population. more »

Manual on Tourism and Poverty Alleviation – Practical Steps for Destinations

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) 2010

With the aim of contributing to the understanding of tourism as a tool for poverty alleviation and sustainable development, UNWTO jointly with SNV has produced this publication, which outlines some practical steps that can be taken in tourism destinations to shape and manage tourism in ways which deliver more benefits to disadvantaged individuals and communities. The manual looks at the process of analysing a tourism destination in terms of current contribution of tourism to the poor and planning how this could be strengthened in the future. It proposes the establishment of a tourism strategy and action plan based on this analysis which embraces pro-poor concerns and actions and provides guidance on planning monitoring and evaluation. Furthermore it contains an indicative programme of training sessions, including handouts, using the material contained in the manual. more »

Manufacturers and Retailers in the Global Economy

Horst Raff Nicolas Schmitt 2010

In many consumer-goods industries big-box retailers have become the gatekeepers of product variety. Manufacturers come knockin’ on these retailers’ doors to gain access to consumers. We first construct a general-equilibrium model of manufacturing and retailing in a global economy to study the causes and consequences of this development and how resources are being allocated between manufacturing and retailing... more »

Mapping Global Value Chains

Intermediate Goods Trade and Structural Change in the World Economy
UNIDO 2010
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There is broad agreement that the world economy is becoming more deeply integrated and interdependent along multiple dimensions: economic, cultural and political. While one might expect cultural or political integration to be difficult to measure with precision, global economic integration has also proven resistant to detailed quantification and empirical characterization. We have a strong sense of profound changes in the world economy... more »


MDG Gap Report 2010

The Global Partnership for Development at a Critical Juncture
DESA 2010
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The world economy is recovering from its most severe downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The recovery is still very fragile and uneven, however. The global jobs crisis has not subsided, as can be seen from persistent high unemployment rates in the major developed countries and increased rates of underemployment and vulnerable employment in many developing countries. The lack of recovery in employment presents a risk for output recovery as it suppresses consumption and investment demand... more »

Measuring business births and deaths in quarterly job-flow data

Using the Linked Employer-Employee Dataset
Mathew Page 2011

This paper’s purpose is to develop a suitable method to identify the contribution that start-up businesses (business births) make to total job creation in the New Zealand economy. And similarly, the contribution of closing businesses (business deaths) to total job destruction in the economy. Developing this method will enable further research into total job creation and destruction across the economic business cycle... more »

Measuring Globalization: The Experience of the United States of America


As the term is usually employed, "globalization" implies that not only has consumption been internationalized through cross-border trade in goods and services, but production also has been internationalized through foreign direct investment.1 In discussions relating to statistical indicators of globalization, it is commonly taken for granted that data on cross-border trade will be available, and so the attention is focused on information relating to the operations of direct investment enterprises, or affiliates… more »

Measuring Success in the Global Economy

International trade, industrial upgrading, and business function outsourcing in global value chains
Timothy Sturgeon Gary Gereffi 2009

This article contributes to an assessment and celebration of the scholarly and policy work of the late Sanjaya Lall. As Rasiah (2009) highlights, Lall’s work was at once broad, deep and intensely focused. Over his long career, Lall and his many collaborators used the lenses of the transnational corporation (TNC), competitiveness, globalization and technological learning to uncover… more »

Measuring the Cost of International Trade in Services

Sébastien Miroudot Jehan Sauvage Ben Shepherd 2010

We present a new dataset of international trade costs in services sectors. Using a theory-based methodology combined with data on domestic shipments and cross-border trade, we find that trade costs in services are much higher than in goods sectors: a multiple of two to three times in many cases. Trade costs in services have remained relatively steady over the last ten years, whereas trade costs in goods have fallen overall at an impressive rate... more »

Measuring the Effect of International Relocations on French Economy


As in many other developed countries, international relocations are currently a very hot topic in France. This can be readily concluded from the number of articles devoted by the French newspapers to this subject in 2004, compared to the preceding years (Table 1). A heated debate already took place in the early 1990s, culminating with the reports of Arthuis and Devedjian in 1993… more »

Monetary Policy Statement

Macroeconomic and Monetary Developments Second Quarter, Review 2010-2011
Reserve Bank of India 2010

As renewed concerns about the strength of the global recovery started to dampen the external demand conditions, the impact of robust domestic growth was visible in the form of a higher current account deficit in the first quarter of... more »

National and Regional Tourism Planning: Methodologies and Case Studies

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 1994

his publication lays the foundation for tourism development of a country and its regions. It establishes the principal guidelines for preparing tourism development plans at the national and regional levels with emphasis on the integrated approach, balancing economic, environmental, and socio-cultural factors achieving sustainable tourism. Illustrated by 25 case studies. more »

New Perspectives and New Data for the Empirical Analysis of the Globalisation of the Industry

Stefano Menghinello 2011

Do you think this project is relevant for both analytical purposes and policy implications? Which is the best way to achieve consistent and internationally comparable empirical results based on national level micro analysis? Do you plan to joint this project, even over time and with intermediate goals (simplified dataset)?... more »

New State Practices at a Time of System Disturbance and the Nasty Business of Protectionism — the expectation for global demand management

Daniel Drache 2010

This paper examines the new state practices of demand management and rescue policies. States have become innovative in the current crisis developing highly divergent responses to re-insert government in the management of the economy (Rodrik, 2008). The paper will argue that protectionism of the classical variety is a peanut-sized problem today and that states learned from the mistakes of the Great Depression when Everest-sized trade walls brought global trade to… more »

Non-Tariff Measures

Evidence from Selected Developing Countries and Future Research Agenda
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The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has been actively involved in research and programmatic activities on issues related to nontariff measures since the early 1980s. In 1994, it began to collect and classify non-tariff barriers (NTBs) according to a customized Coding System of Trade Control Measures… more »

OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment 4th Ed.

OECD 2008
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Financial markets have evolved into a more globally integrated framework as a result of increasing liberalisation of exchange controls and market access. This integration, accelerated by increasing competition amongst market participants, has led to the introduction of new financial instruments with broad market access and lower transaction costs, attracting investors of many nationalities and countries (economies)... more »

Offshore Corporate Services in Latin America and the Caribbean

ECLAC 2008

The global offshore corporate services (OCS) market includes a broad range of activities, from call and contact centers to business processes to software development. New, more knowledge-intensive services have started to be successfully offshored on a large scale in recent years, whether through outsourcing or through in-house operations. The increasing size, diversity and complexity of this market have generated opportunities for a growing number of developing countries, including in Latin America and the Caribbean… more »

Offshoring of Jobs

Gary Gereffi 2005
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The Social Policy Lectures are endowed by the ILO’s Nobel Peace Prize of 1969 and dedicated to the memory of David A. Morse, Director-General of the ILO from 1948 to 1970. They are held in major universities of the world with the three-fold aim of stimulating the interest of graduate and post-graduate students in international social policy; of promoting academic work in areas of concern to the ILO; and of encouraging greater dialogue between the academic community on the one hand and policy makers… more »

Outsourcing and Imported Services in BEA’s Industry Accounts


Outsourcing of professional and support services by U. S. firms, especially goods producing firms, is one of the factors that has contributed to the steady increase in the service sector’s share of the U.S. economy. Outsourced services typically include software production, information and data processing services, computer systems design, professional, scientific, and technical services, and administrative and support services… more »

Outsourcing in a Global Economy

Gene Grossman Elhanan Helpman 2005

We live in an age of outsourcing. Firms seem to be subcontracting an ever expanding set of activities, ranging from product design to assembly, from research and development to marketing, distribution and after-sales service. Some firms have gone so far as to become "virtual" manufacturers, owning designs for many products but making almost nothing themselves.1 Vertical disintegration is especially evident in international trade. A recent annual report of the World Trade Organization (1998) details, for example, the production of a particular "American" car… more »

Pharmaceutical Industry: The Globalization of Innovation

Can India and China Cure the Global Pharmaceutical Market?
Vivek Wadhwa Ben Rissing Gary Gereffi John Trumpbour Pete Engardio 2008
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Industries are oft en thought of in terms of the nations that have launched the greatest innovations. There is a perception of a U.S. automotive industry pitted against a Japanese industry, for example, or the U.S. pharmaceutical industry against the European industry. Globalization has, however, rapidly changed the underlying nature of these competitive relationships… more »

Policy Barriers to International Trade in Services

Evidence from a New Database
Ingo Borchert Batshur Gootiiz Aaditya Mattoo 2012

Compared to the vast empirical literature on policies affecting trade in goods, the empirical analysis of services trade policy is still in its infancy. A major constraint has been inadequate data on policies affecting services trade, especially in developing countries. Previous research has tended to rely on secondary sources and policy commitments under international agreements (e.g. Hoekman 1996)... more »

Potential Effects of the Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on Selected Developing Countries

Jim Rollo Peter Holmes Spencer Henson 2013
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This paper evaluates some of the potential effects of EU-US TTIP economic integration on the trade in goods of 43 low-income countries (LIC) listed in Table 1. It first assesses the impact of removing the most-favoured nation (MFN) tariffs that apply to trade between the EU and the US. It then examines the impact of regulatory integration on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and technical barriers to trade (TBT) on LIC. These tariff and non-tariff barrier (NTB) assessments reached similar conclusions. more »

Poverty Alleviation Through Tourism - A Compilation of Good Practices

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2006

With a view to further support governments and other institutions in their endeavours, UNWTO has produced this publication in the series on Tourism and Poverty Alleviation, including concrete examples of private or public tourism projects and operations that have been presented by UNWTO Member States as good, sustainable practices in poverty reduction through tourism. In total, 26 cases were received from 20 countries. The seven approaches, set up in the previous publication “Tourism and Poverty Alleviation: Recommendations for Action”, have been used to facilitate a more accurate description of the mechanisms that contribute to poverty reduction:Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises, Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor, direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy), Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor - e.g. micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs), or community based enterprises (formal economy), tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor, Voluntary giving/support by tourism enterprises and tourists, Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality, directly or through support to other sectors. more »

Production Networks and Trade Patterns in East Asia: Regionalization or Globalization?

Prema-chandra Athukorala 2010

This paper examines the implications of global production sharing for economic integration in East Asia, with emphasis on the behavior of trade flows in the wake of the 2008 global economic crisis. While trade in parts and components and final assembly within production networks (?network trade?) has generally grown faster than total world trade in manufacturing, the degree of dependence of East Asia on this new form of international specialization is proportionately larger than elsewhere in the world... more »

Recent Trends in US Services Trade

2010 Annual Report
Samantha Brady Erick Oh 2010
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Recent Trends in U.S. Services Trade, 2010 Annual Report focuses principally on infrastructure services (banking, electricity, insurance, retailing, securities, and telecommunications), which are consumed by every firm irrespective of economic sector. The largest infrastructure service firms are located in developed countries and offer their services globally through cross-border trade and affiliate transactions. Economic growth in developing countries around the world continues to create new opportunities for expansion and investment by infrastructure service firms... more »

Regional Economic Cooperation in Asia: current situation and future prospects

ESCAP 2010

The current global crisis has exposed the risk of overdependence of the region on trade and investments with developed markets. Developed markets still absorb around half of the region’s exports, notwithstanding the gains achieved in fostering intra-regional trade over the years. Thus, in a post-crisis scenario, the region is continuing with its strategy of diversifying markets, while recognizing that a full “decoupling” from developed countries is neither feasible over the short term, nor would it be desirable... more »

Revised NACE and Business Register

Fabio Tomasini 2007

This paper examines the experience of the Swiss Federal Statistical Office in the implementation of the revised classifications of economic activities. A description of background, the different tasks, the challenges in the coordination activities are the main subjects that will be addressed. The model of the revision system in the statistical system will be also presented… more »

Rural Tourism - A Solution for Employment, Local Development and Environment

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 1997

This publication is a result of the CEU-ETC Joint Seminar, held in Israel during 1996. The purpose of this seminar was to promote an exchange of experience on rural tourism between member countries, including in particular those for whom tourism presents a new challenge.The publication includes a selection of presentations submitted to the seminar, covering subjects such as rural tourism: products, market, and marketing methods; rural tourism and local development, environmental protection, and government aid; rural tourism: professions, training, qualifications, and employment creation; prospects for rural tourism in the future: cooperation to ensure that this product promotes sustainable tourism at local level more »

Seizing the benefits of Trade for Employment and Growth


Countries that have embraced openness have been more successful in sustaining growth and moving up the development ladder than those that have not. The available evidence highlights that trade openness will contribute to growth and employment, provided that it is complemented by appropriate policies... more »

Service Reform and Manufacturing Performance

Evidence from India
Jens Matthias Arnold Beata Javorcik Molly Lipscomb Aaditya Mattoo 2010

Conventional explanations for the post-1991 growth of India’s manufacturing sector focus on goods trade liberalization and industrial de-licensing. We demonstrate the powerful contribution of a neglected factor: India’s policy reforms in services. The link between these reforms and the productivity of manufacturing firms is examined using panel data for about 4,000 Indian firms for the period 1993-2005... more »

Skills, Exports and the Wages of Seven Million Latin American Workers

Irene Brambilla Rafael Dix Carneiro Daniel Lederman Guido Porto 2010

The returns to schooling and the skill premium are key parameters in various fields and policy debates, including the literatures on globalization and inequality, international migration, and technological change. This paper explores the skill premium and its correlation with exports in Latin America, thus linking the skill premium to the emerging literature on the structure of trade and development... more »

Slicing Up Global Value Chains

Abdul Azeez Eru Bart Los Robert Stehrer Marcel Timmer Gaaitzen de Vries 2011

In this paper we provide a new metric for the contributions of countries to global value chains. It is based on an input-output analysis of vertically integrated industries, taking into account trade in intermediate inputs within and across countries. The value of global manufacturing output is allocated to labour and capital employed in various regions in the world… more »

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Characteristics and Performance

William Deese Erland Herfindahl 2010
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This report is the third in a series by the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) that examines the domestic and global operations of U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The Commission found that U.S. exporting SMEs outperform their nonexporting SME counterparts by several measures. Whether they deal in services or manufacturing, exporting SMEs show higher total revenues, faster total revenue growth, and higher labor productivity than their nonexporting SME counterparts. The Commission also found several noteworthy contrasts between exporting large firms and exporting SMEs… more »

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Overview of Participation in U.S. Exports

Alexander Hammer Cathy Jabara Laura Bloodgood Nicholas Grossman 2010
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This report describes characteristics of domestic small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the role they play in U.S. exports. Within the U.S. economy, SMEs account for the vast majority of firms and approximately half the gross domestic product (GDP) generated by nonagricultural sectors. However, SMEs accounted for only about 30 percent of merchandise exports between 1997 and 2007... more »

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities Experienced by U.S. Firms

Justino De La Cruz James Stamps Laura Bloodgood 2010
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This report examines the extent and composition of U.S. exports by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and factors that may disproportionately impede U.S. SME exports. It compares the exporting activities of SMEs in the United States with those of SMEs in the European Union (EU); describes barriers and costs associated with exporting, as reported by U.S. SMEs; and identifies the benefits to U.S. SMEs from improvements to the exporting environment resulting from free trade agreements (FTAs) and other trading arrangements… more »

Special issue on Shifting End Markets and GVC Upgrading

Cornelia Staritz Gary Gereffi (editor) Olivier Cattaneo(editor) 2011
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This special issue aims to contribute to our understanding of developing countries’ prospects for upgrading in global value chains (GVCs) in the context of recent shifts in global demand and production. Trade integration and economic growth in many developing countries has been fuelled by the insertion of local producers in GVCs feeding into high-income markets, in particular North America, Europe and Japan. However, since the mid-1980s – a trend that has been accelerated by the 2008/2009 global economic crisis… more »

Staying Competitive in the Global Economy

Compendium of studies on Global Value Chains
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This report brings together OECD data on the globalisation of value chains, including the rise of outsourcing/offshoring. It first examines how OECD countries are affected by the globalisation of production, on both the macroeconomic and sector-specific levels. The costs and benefits of globalisation are then discussed, with an emphasis on employment and productivity. Finally, this report analyses how globalisation impacts the competitiveness of OECD countries, highlighting the need for an effective innovation strategy. The report discusses not only the moving up the value chain that takes place in OECD countries but also in China, as R&D is increasingly going to emerging countries. more »

Structural and Demographic Business Statistics December 2006

OECD 2006

The Structural and Demographic Business Statistics (SDBS), 2006, publication marks a significant change from the last publication in this area (Structural Statistics for Industry and Services, 2003) in a number of ways. The most important of these is the incorporation, for the first time, of structural business statistics by size class; an important development reflecting the increased policy and analytical focus on entrepreneurship and the role of small and medium enterprises within economies... more »

Sustainable Development of Ecotourism - A Compilation of Good Practices

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2001

This publication has been prepared on the occasion of the International Year of Ecotourism 2002. It is the second volume within the series of Good Practices published in the area of Sustainable Development of Tourism.The 55 case studies taken from 39 countries present a wide range of successful ecotourism initiatives. Each of them is presented in a systematic form, describing stakeholders involved, objectives and strategies, funding, sustainability and monitoring aspects, problems encountered and solutions found in each project, etc. The sustainability aspects are further detailed according to specific elements of ecotourism such as: conservation, community involvement, interpretation and education, as well as environmental management practices. This compilation is of great value for tourism professionals from both the public and private sector, who can learn from these experiences and adapt them to ecotourism activities in their own country. more »

Sustainable Development of Ecotourism: A Compilation of Good Practices in SMEs

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2003

This compilation contains 65 case studies received from 47 countries about exemplary practices in small ecotourism businesses (SMEs). The cases provide rich details on methodologies and business approaches applied successfully by a wide range of ecotourism companies; they provide a valuable well of information that can serve for generating ideas and adapting sustainable ecotourism practices to the specific local conditions elsewhere. The experiences presented in this book come directly from the field, from the people who have developed these initiatives and who are daily in charge of these business ventures. They reflect well the complexity of small businesses, the great challenges and opportunities they face, and the endless creativity that this business allows for. more »

Sustainable Development of Tourism - A Compilation of Good Practices

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2000

The progress towards a more sustainable tourism industry is best demonstrated through success stories. This publication contains around 50 examples of good practices in sustainable development and management of tourism, collected from 31 countries. A great variety of projects are presented, ranging from local to regional and national levels, including activities of the public, private and NGO sectors, covering aspects of eco-, rural- and cultural tourism, accommodations, tour operations, transportation, protected area management, regulatory and voluntary frameworks, among others. Each case is described in a systematic order, including detailed background information, success factors for sustainability, problems aroused and their solutions, lessons learnt, and monitoring activities. This publication will be of great value to tourism officials, managers, researchers, and anyone interested in the tourism industry. more »

Sustainable Development of Tourism in Deserts - Guidelines for Decision Makers

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2007

The UNWTO has always made it a point to study each form of tourism taking into consideration the characteristics of each type of destination--urban, cultural, rural, nature, coastal, or island destinations, among others--in order to provide international institutions, national and local tourism administrations, and the private sector with useful criteria for appropriate planning, management and follow-up action to ensure the sustainability of tourism activities in each specific socio-geographical context. On the occasion of the International Year of Deserts and Desertification, 2006, this new UNWTO handbook addresses the development of tourism in deserts and areas that are experiencing desertification. It is aimed at the international community, and in particular the governments of countries with desert areas within their territories, as well as the international, national and local private-sector actors that operate in them, with a view to helping them implement policies and actions, and to provide them with an resource they can rely upon in carrying out their initiatives. It presents a vision of sustainable tourism specific to these areas characterized by an extreme climate, taking into account both their fragility as well as their richness in natural, human and cultural assets. Last but not least, this manual can also serve as a valuable reference for local desert communities, who are the main stakeholders in this process. more »

Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas - Guidelines for Planning and Management

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 2002

The link between protected areas and tourism is as old as the history of protected areas. Though the relationship is complex and sometimes adversarial, tourism is always a critical component to consider in the establishment and management of protected areas. These guidelines aim to build an understanding of protected area tourism, and its management. They provide both a theoretical structure and practical guidelines for managers. The underlying aim is to ensure that tourism contributes to the purposes of protected areas and does not undermine them. more »

Taking stock of reform action and identifying priorities in 2013

Going for Growth
OECD 2013

Structural reforms have gained momentum in the aftermath of the recent recession. This has been driven in part by market pressures in the context of the euro area crisis and by discussions and co-ordinated efforts in multilateral settings such as the G20.1 There is increasing awareness of the necessity to accompany macroeconomic stabilisation policies with structural reforms. Yet, given the weakness of near-term demand prospects, the limited scope for macro policies to further stimulate demand and the still less than fully functioning financial sector in many countries, there is a risk that the benefits from reform may take more time to materialise than in a normal conjuncture... more »

Tax Statistics in South Africa

Breytenbach, Deon Leolo, Mamiky 2011

The paper provides an overview of the tax statistics as published by the South African Revenue Service and National Treasury. South Africa is considered to be an emerging economy and is member of the economic block “BRICS”. It has an abundant supply of natural resources, which are mainly exported. The key challenges facing the country are recovery from the recession, as well as addressing post-apartheid structural problems related to unemployment and lack of skilled labour. The Gini coefficient of South Africa was measured at 0.679 in 2009, which is among the highest in the world... more »

The British Ecotourism Market

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2001

The year 2002 was declared by the United Nations as the International Year of Ecotourism. For this occasion, the WTO prepared a series of market reports with the aim to increase the knowledge of seven important countries considered “Ecotourism generating markets”. The survey: analyzes and evaluates the nature tourism and ecotourism market, its volume, characteristics, major trends and development profiles. The study also reports on consumer profiles, the role of the different marketing actors, product typologies and the main marketing tools used in the market. more »

The Canadian Ecotourism Market

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2002

The year 2002 was declared by the United Nations as the International Year of Ecotourism. For this occasion, the WTO prepared a series of market reports with the aim to increase the knowledge of seven important countries considered “Ecotourism generating markets”. The survey: analyzes and evaluates the nature tourism and ecotourism market, its volume, characteristics, major trends and development profiles. The study also reports on consumer profiles, the role of the different marketing actors, product typologies and the main marketing tools used in the market. more »

The Day After Tomorrow

A Handbook on the Future of Economic Policy in the Developing World
Otaviano Canuto Marcelo Giugale 2010
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The global financial crisis of 2008–09 changed not only the global economic order, but also the way we think about that order. Principles and practices that were once accepted wisdom are now in doubt or discredited. New and fundamental questions have opened. And the search for answers has barely begun. For the countries of the developing world, this conceptual uncertainty is particularly uncomfortable—through a combination of good policies and good luck, they had begun to achieve real progress. Will all that now be derailed? What does the new horizon hold for them?... more »

The Doha Round

Patrick Messerlin 2010

Firstly, what is the “value” of a Round? The long negotiating process has fueledthe wide perception that the Doha Round is not worth it. Section I shows that this perception is wrong by looking at the three alternative dimensions capturing the value of a Round… more »

The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints Eight Update 2013

Special Topic: Services' Contribution to Manufacturing
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The U.S. International Trade Commission’s latest update in this series of reports presents results on the economic effects on the U.S. economy of removing significant U.S. import restraints, including U.S. tariffs and tariff-rate quotas on certain agricultural products, textiles and apparel, and other manufactured products. The Commission estimates that liberalization of all significant import restraints quantified in this update would increase annual U.S. welfare by $1.1 billion by 2017. The eighth update also features a special topic chapter on the role of services in manufacturing, which explores trends in U.S. manufacturers’ use of services and the contribution of services to manufacturing output and productivity. more »

The French Ecotourism Market

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2002

The year 2002 was declared by the United Nations as the International Year of Ecotourism. For this occasion, the WTO prepared a series of market reports with the aim to increase the knowledge of seven important countries considered “Ecotourism generating markets”. The survey: analyzes and evaluates the nature tourism and ecotourism market, its volume, characteristics, major trends and development profiles. The study also reports on consumer profiles, the role of the different marketing actors, product typologies and the main marketing tools used in the market. more »

The Future of Economic Convergence

Dani Rodrik 2011

Novelists have a better track record than economists at foretelling the future. Consider then Gary Shteyngart’s timely comic novel “Super Sad True Love Story” (Random House, 2010), which provides a rather graphic vision of what lies in store for the world economy. The novel takes place in the near future and is set against the backdrop of a United States that lies in economic and political ruin… more »

THE G20 SEOUL SUMMIT, Leader's Declaration

G-20 2010

1. We, the Leaders of the G20, are united in our conviction that by working together we can secure a more prosperous future for the citizens of all countries... more »

The Geographic Scope of Trade

Firm-level evidence on similarities between goods and services
Fergal McCann Farid Toubal 2011

We investigate numerous predictions regarding the relationship between rms' pro- ductivity and the geographic extensive margins of trade in both goods and services. A unique dataset combining French rms' production information with country- product level information on services and goods imports and exports allows us to examine numerous hypotheses... more »

The German Ecotourism Market

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2002

The year 2002 was declared by the United Nations as the International Year of Ecotourism. For this occasion, the WTO prepared a series of market reports with the aim to increase the knowledge of seven important countries considered “Ecotourism generating markets”. The survey: analyzes and evaluates the nature tourism and ecotourism market, its volume, characteristics, major trends and development profiles. The study also reports on consumer profiles, the role of the different marketing actors, product typologies and the main marketing tools used in the market. more »

The Global Apparel Value Chain

Trade and the Crisis Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries
Gary Gereffi Stacey Frederick 2010

This paper examines the impact of two crises on the global apparel value chain: the World Trade organization phase-out of the quota system for textiles and apparel in 2005, which provided access for many poor and small export-oriented economies to the markets of industrialized countries, and the current economic recession that has lowered demand for apparel exports and led to massive unemployment across the industry’s supply chain… more »

The goliaths

The fate of large firms helps explain economic volatility
The Economist 2013
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Because economies are built of millions of firms and trading relationships, individual companies and export channels should not matter. Yet aggregate shocks do not explain volatility very well. Common shocks (to whole countries or global industries) explain only 45% of the variations. The data show that the picture of trade as millions of links is inaccurate; in fact, flows are extremely concentrated. A widely held view is that trade lowers volatility: exporting to more markets means greater diversification. But more foreign trade exposes economies more to the fortunes of large firms, since they trade disproportionately. more »

The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Off-farm Employment and Earnings in Rural China

Jikun Huang Huayong Zhi Zhurong Huang Scott Rozelle John Giles 2010

This paper examines the effect of the financial crisis on off-farm employment of China’s rural labor force. Using a national representative data set collected from across China, the paper finds that there was a substantial impact. By April 2009 the reduction in off-farm employment as a result of the crises was 6.8 percent of the rural labor force. Monthly earnings also declined… more »

The Italian Ecotourism Market

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 2002

The year 2002 was declared by the United Nations as the International Year of Ecotourism. For this occasion, the WTO prepared a series of market reports with the aim to increase the knowledge of seven important countries considered “Ecotourism generating markets”. The survey: analyzes and evaluates the nature tourism and ecotourism market, its volume, characteristics, major trends and development profiles. The study also reports on consumer profiles, the role of the different marketing actors, product typologies and the main marketing tools used in the market. more »