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Detailed structure and explanatory notes

ISIC Rev.3.1 code 22


  • Section: D - Manufacturing
  • Division: 22 - Publishing, printing and reproduction of recorded media


This Division is divided into the following Groups:

  • 221 - Publishing
  • 222 - Printing and service activities related to printing
  • 223 - Reproduction of recorded media

Explanatory note

This division includes printing and publishing whether or nor connected with printing. Publishing involves financial, technical, artistic, legal and marketing activities, among others, but not predominantly. The primary breakdown of this division is by units engaged in publishing, whether or not connected with printing (group 221) versus units engaged in printing only (group 222). The breakdown of publishing activities into classes is based on the type of printed matter or recorded media published.
This division includes units engaged in the publishing of newspapers, magazines, other periodicals, and books. In general, these units, which are known as publishers, issue copies of works for which they usually possess copyright. Works may be in one or more formats including traditional print form and electronic form. Publishers may publish works originally created by others for which they have obtained the rights and/or works that they have created in-house.
The printing activities print products, such as newspapers, books, periodicals, business forms, greeting cards, and other materials, and perform support activities, such as bookbinding, plate-making services, and data imaging. The support activities included here are an integral part of the printing industry, and a product (a printing plate, a bound book, or a computer disk or file) that is an integral part of the printing industry is almost always provided by these operations.
Processes used in printing include a variety of methods for transferring an image from a plate, screen, or computer file to some medium, such as paper, plastics, metal, textile articles, or wood. The most prominent of these methods entails the transfer of the image from a plate or screen to the medium (lithographic, gravure, screen, and flexographic printing). A rapidly growing new technology uses a computer file to directly ''drive'' the printing mechanism to create the image and new electrostatic and other types of equipment (digital or non-impact printing).
Though printing and publishing can be carried out by the same unit (a newspaper, for example), it is less and less the case that these distinct activities are carried out in the same physical location. When publishing and printing are done in the same unit, the unit is classified in group 221 (Publishing) even if the receipts for printing exceed those for publishing.
Units engaged in both online publishing and other publishing are included here, as represented, for example, by a newspaper publisher who also publishes an online version of the newspaper.

This division excludes units engaged exclusively in online publishing, see 7240.
This division excludes publishing of software, see 7221, and the publishing of motion pictures and videotapes, see 9211.

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