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Global Forum on Trade Statistics
organized jointly by UNSD and Eurostat in collaboration with WTO and UNCTAD

2-4 February 2011, Geneva, Switzerland

Thursday 3 Feb 2011, Afternoon Session, 14:30 - 17:30

HUBERT ESCAITH (Chairperson)
  Hubert Escaith is the WTO's Chief Statistician. He holds a Master in Economics from the University of Aix-Marseille (France),  a doctorate in Mathematics Applied to Economics  from the University of Toulouse (France) and a Master in Management Information and Decision Support Systems from the École Supérieure de Sciences Économiques et Commerciales (ESSEC, Paris, France).

After a research post in economics and statistics with the French "Délégation à la Recherche Scientifique et Technique", he joined the United Nations in 1982. His first assignment was in the Middle East, where he worked on food security issues and rural development. He moved to Latin America in 1988, first to Mexico, then to Santiago de Chile, always for the UN. During his stay in Latin America, he held various positions, focusing on development economics, national accounts and statistics, trade and regional integration. In 2006, he left his post of Director of the UN-ECLAC Statistics and Economic Projections Division to join the WTO in Geneva.

  Mr. Pascal Lamy is Director-General of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) since September 2005.

Mr. Lamy holds degrees from the Paris based Ecole des Hautes Études Commerciales (HEC), from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques (IEP) and from the Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA). He began his career in the French civil service at the Inspection Générale des finances and at the Treasury. He then became an advisor to the Finance Minister Jacques Delors, and subsequently to Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy.

In Brussels from 1985 to 1994, Pascal Lamy was Chief of staff for the President of the European Commission, Jacques Delors, and his representative as Sherpa in the G7. In November 1994, he joined the team in charge of rescuing Credit Lyonnais, and later became CEO of the bank until its privatisation in 1999. Between 1999 and 2004, Pascal Lamy was Commissioner for Trade at the European Commission under Romano Prodi. After his tenure in Brussels, Pascal Lamy spent a short sabbatical period as President of “Notre Europe”, a think tank working on European integration, as associate Professor at the l’Institut d’études politiques in Paris and as advisor to Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (President of the European Socialist Party).

  Measuring global value chains: data gaps and new approaches
It is widely agreed that economic statistics need to be brought in line with new realities in the global economy.  However, the details of cross-border economic integration have proven resistant to quantification and empirical characterization. Using the conceptual framework of “global value chains,” this presentation lays out several of the most glaring data gaps and outlines a few innovative efforts to fill them, including the development ofindustry-specific classifications for final and intermediate goods trade and the collection of enterprise-level international sourcing data at the level of business functions.  The way forward will require new methods for using existing data, improvements to existing data collection programs, especially for trade in services, and the deployment of novel enterprise-level surveys focused on outsourcing and offshoring.
  Timothy J. Sturgeon is a Senior Research Affiliate at the Industrial Performance Center (IPC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and co-organizer of the Global Value Chains Initiative ( He is co-principle investigator (with UC Berkeley’s Clair Brown) of the National Survey of Organizations to Study Globalization, Innovation and Employment; funded by the National Science Foundation. Tim served as coordinator of the MIT IPC Services Offshoring Working Group, and was lead author of its final report, released in September 2006. Prior to this, Tim served as Executive Director of the IPC’s Globalization Study; Globalization Research Director for the International Motor Vehicle Program at MIT’s Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development; and Director of the MIT/Carnegie Mellon Project on Globalization and Jobs in the Automotive Industry, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Tim has taught, lectured, and conducted field research in dozens of countries, with a focus on the evolution of global value chains in the automotive and electronics industries. He is co-editor (with Momoko Kawakami) of Local Learning in Global Value Chains: Experiences from East Asia, forthcoming from Palgrave Macmillan, and has published his research in international peer-reviewed journals including Studies in Comparative International Development, Industrial and Corporate Change, Review of International Political Economy, Journal of East Asian Studies, and Journal of Economic Geography.

  The continuous globalisation of our economies confronts the national statistical offices with new challenges and user demands to measure new phenomena such as global value chains, which arise through a combination of foreign direct investment and international sourcing. The increased frag-mentation of value chains enabled by the technological development, especially within ICT, disperses a range of business functions globally to gain efficiency and/or access to new markets and is an important feature of modern economies.

In order to understand the development it is necessary to identify a unit of analysis smaller than the enterprise –the main statistical unit in European structural business statistics.

To achieve the appropriate unit of analysis the concept of business functions has been developed and implemented in a recent survey on international sourcing carried out by 14 European countries. Conceptualising global value chains and business functions in statistical terms is a challenge as business statistics generally have tended to conceptualise and measure tangible phenomena in terms of inputs and outputs, as opposed to more intangible phenomena such as processes and forms of organisation in between these two points.

This presentation will introduce the innovative methodological work on developing a new survey tool on global value chains and international sourcing and present some main findings. A new survey is foreseen to be launched in 2012 within the EU.
  Peter Bøegh Nielsen, PhD, is head of division for Structural Business Statistics, Statistics on Globalisation, Information Society, R&D and Innovation in Statistics Denmark. Peter Bøegh Nielsen is currently chairing a Eurostat project on measuring global value chains and international sourcing. He has been chairman of the bureau of the United Nations city group: Voorburg Group on Service Statistics 1998 to 2002 and chairman of OECD’s Working Party on Indicators on the Information Society 2002-2003. He is currently a member of the OECD Working Party on Globalisation indicators.

  The presentation “New manuals of trade in goods and trade in services: Goods for processing in Iceland” outlines how the treatment of goods for processing has changed in the new manuals for trade in goods and trade in services. Example is given from Iceland as a processing country, how data on goods for processing is collected and the impact of the changes of the manuals. Questions are put forward regarding the publication of data of goods for processing in a case like Iceland.
  Ms. Svavarsdottir is the head of the External Trade unit, Statistics Iceland (trade in goods from 1993 and trade in goods and services from 2009).

Ms. Svavarsdottir's educational background includes her Candidata Economics from University of Iceland and her MBA from Schiller International University, Germany.

  China’s Practice on measuring goods for inward processing 
In recent years, China has experienced a rapid development in external trade, with a 17% average growth rate during 1995-2010. According to the statistics recently released by China’s Customs, total export values have reached US$ 1577.9 billion, with US$ 1394.8 billion worth of imports in 2010, which is estimated to make China the world biggest exporter. The inward processing trade is regarded as the driving force of China’s foreign trade, accounting for a large proportion of China’s total imports and exports, and is a major contributor to the growth of the net increase in China’s total exports. The validity of the data and the methodology for measuring the inward processing goods have attracted much attention from world economists and policy makers.

By following WCO definitions and adopting UN recommendations on compiling external trade statistics, China’s customs compile and release the detailed statistics on inward processing trade, (e.g. according to: change of ownership, product, quantity and value, trade partner, character of import/export enterprise). This information is also provided to other government agencies like the National Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Commerce, the State Agency of Foreign Exchange under institutional arrangements. Despite the ‘remainder quality’ problem of the data, the statistics provide useful information for compiling statistics of national economy, trade administration, and economic analysis.
  Ms. Hongman JIN, is the Division Chief of the Trade Statistics Division of the Statistics Department of the General Administration of Customs of China (GACC).

Ms. Jin holds a Bachelor’s degree in statistics and a Master’s degree of public policy and has been working in the statistics department of the GACC since her graduation 1988. She has worked in the areas of data verification, methodology, and data analysis of China’s external merchandise trade statistics. She became division chief assistant in 1999, and has been division chief since 2007.

She is familiar with China’s customs procedures, and has participated in many trade data reconciliation studies with China’s trade partners. She is a member of the UN export group for the revision of for International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Concept and Definition 2010 (IMTS 2010).  

  Handbook on the Impact of Globalisation on National Accounts
The publication covers the main factors concerning the effects of globalization on national accounts. Each chapter describes a particular aspect of globalization, and explains how it can affect estimates in national accounts. Guidance is given on how national estimates can be produced, or how statistical collection systems should be improved to maintain the quality of the accounts. Although common threads run through the whole guide, the chapters are arranged in three thematic sections: Part I-Multinational Enterprises, Part II-some issues concerning Trade in Goods and Services, and Part III-Global Manufacturing, and Household related issues.

  Tihomira Dimova worked for 6 years in the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria before she joined the UNECE Statistical division in 2002. Since 2005 she is in charge of the work on national accounts. Currently she is the Secretary of the Expert Group on the Impact of Globalization on National Accounts.

  Eurostat will present European Union's harmonised legal and methodological framework of foreign affiliates statistics (FATS). The presentation will include a summary of main elements of this framework, examples of data published and a discussion of main methodological difficulties faced by data compilers. A special attention will be devoted to important links and substantial methodological differences between FATS and other statistical domains which are relevant to research on economic globalisation and activities of multinational enterprises, such as international trade in goods and services, foreign direct investment and structural business statistics.
  Szymon Bielecki is project manager coordinating foreign affiliates statistics (FATS) at Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Union. After his graduation in International Economics (1998) and in International Management (1999) he joined the Poznan University of Economics as research assistant with a focus on European economic integration and globalisation issues. He was also involved in the Polish part of the GEM project on entrepreneurship indicators and in business consultancy for SMEs. Szymon has been working in the area of business statistics at Eurostat since 2005.

  New Statistics at no cost? -The case of a joint compilation of FDI and FATS-Statistics in Austria
Economic developments like the ongoing economic globalisation pose new questions to politicians and researchers. Consequently the demand for data describing these processes continues to rise. Additional statistical requirements regularly come into conflict with the limited resources at Statistical agencies and the limited willingness of potential respondents to provide more information. Thanks to harmonised definitions and a close co-operations between Statistics Austria and the Oesterreichische Nationalbank it was possible to introduce the new mandatory Statistics on Multinational Enterprises (European FATS-Statistics) almost without any additional burden for Austrian enterprises and at reasonably low costs for the statistical system.
  Mr. René Dell’Mour is a statistical expert at the Oesterreichische Nationalbank in the area of balance of payments, tourism and direct investment. He received his PhD in Economics from the Vienna University of Economics and Business in 1990 with a thesis on educational planning. He was previously a researcher at the Austrian Academy of Sciences with a focus on educational planning, modelling, forecasting and technology assessment (1976-1992). He studied Statistics at Vienna University (1971-1976).

  The presentation starts with a brief introduction on the structure of the Thai exports and imports, specifically focusing on the contribution of MNEs to the country’s total international trade in goods. Breakdown of exports and imports of those MNEs by ISIC depicts sectoral concentration of MNEs’ activities in the Thai exporting sector, with major industries drawn up as examples for further elaboration. Possibility and practicality concerns over distinguishing “goods for processing” out of ordinary “merchandise trade” are raised and possible data sources (e.g., Customs records, enterprise survey, etc.) are also discussed.
  Ms. Angsupalee Wacharakiat has been the Team Executive for the Balance of Payments Statistics Team, Data Management Department, the Bank of Thailand since November 2006. Prior to serving this position, she has been involved in the compilation of financial account, external debt, and international merchandise trade statistics since 1997. She has also taken part in the project to establish automated system for data compilation and dissemination of external sector statistics within the Bank’s centralized data warehouse. She has participated in regional working groups on external sector statistics; namely, ASEAN’s Working Group on Foreign Direct Investment Statistics (WGFDIS), and EU-ASEAN Capacity Building (EASCAB) Program’s Taskforce on Foreign Direct Investment Statistics. She received her M.Sc. in Applied Economics from the University of Minnesota, USA in 1997.

  UNCTAD’s Division on Investment and Enterprise will present its work related to foreign direct investment and multinational enterprise statistics. The presentation will include a discussion of the issues the organization faces in its role as a secondary compiler of global FDI and TNC statistics. In addition, the presentation will touch on the difficulties in painting a complete picture of globalization in all of its different forms.
  Mr. Michael Hanni is an economist at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in the Division on Investment and Enterprise working on investment and development issues. He is a contributing member of the World Investment Report team and is intimately involved in the Division’s work of processing and evaluating FDI and multinational enterprise statistics. Before joining the United Nations he was a regional and labour economist for the State of Utah in the United States and he received his Master’s degree in economics from the University of Utah.