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GENERAL INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS (Volume 1: 1953-1993)

INTRODUCTION


The data contained on this CD represents the entire General Industrial Statistics dataset of General Industrial Statistics collected by the Industrial Statistics Section of the United Nations Statistics Division. It covers the period 1953-1993. The 1991 edition of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, Volume I: General Industrial Statistics, was the last published, using the data included on the CD. A hard copy of that Yearbook (sales No. E.93.XVII.7) can be ordered through the United Nations Publications Department: publications@un.org. As of 1993, the collection of General Industrial Statistics in value terms has been discontinued by the Industrial Statistics Section of the United Nations Statistics Division, and some of the collection activities have been taken over by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). For more information on the data collected by UNIDO collect, please consult their website: www.unido.org.

The data presented was derived from replies from yearly questionnaires distributed to countries' statistical offices. The index numbers of industrial production were obtained from replies to quarterly questionnaires.

The data shown have been compiled bearing in mind the requirements of international comparability and the standards for this work promulgated by the United Nations. The concepts and definitions of the items of data are drawn from the International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics (statistical papers, Series M, No.48/Rev.1) and the classification by industry from the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), (statistical papers, Series M, No.4/Rev.2).

INQUIRIES AND ORDERS

The General Industrial Statistics dataset can be ordered from the United Nations Publications website here.

PRESENTATION OF DATA


The dataset contains the following codes and indicators of industrial activity, per country:

01 Number of establishments
02 Number of enterprises
03 Average number of persons engaged
04 Average number of employees
05 Wages and salaries of employees
06 Supplements to wages and salaries
07 Average number of operatives
08 Wages and salaries of operatives
09 Hours worked by operatives
10 Days worked by operatives
11 Quantity of electricity consumed
12 Output in factor values
13 Output in producers' prices
14 Output
15 Cost of goods and industrial services consumed
16 Cost of materials and supplies consumed
17 Cost of purchased fuels and electricity consumed
18 Value added in factor values
19 Value added in producers' prices
20 Value added
21 Gross fixed capital formation - total
22 Gross fixed capital formation machinery and equipment
23 Value of stocks at end of period - total
24 Value of stocks at end of period - materials, fuels and supplies
25 Value of stocks at end of period - work in progress
26 Value of stocks at end of period - finished goods
27 Index numbers of industrial production

INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION


The classification of industrial activity set out in the tables follows the three-digit or major group level of International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Rev.2, supplemented by selected four-digit groups. Where information was not provided in this form, the estimates are shown in the most applicable category. Aggregates at the one-digit or major division level and for industry as a whole are included.

REFERENCE UNIT


For most countries represented, the data shown relate to the activity of "establishments" in the specified industries rather than any other type of industrial unit. In a few cases, however, the concepts of "kind-or-activity unit", "local unit" or "enterprise" are found. An "establishment" is ideally a unit which engages, under a single ownership or control, in one, or predominantly one, kind of activity at a single location: for example, an individual mine, workshop, factory or generating station. A "kind-of-activity unit" differs from the establishment in that there is no restriction in respect of the geographical area in which a given kind of activity is carried on by a single legal entity. A "local unit", on the other hand, comprises all activities carried on under a single ownership or control at a single location and differs from the establishment-type of unit in that there is no restriction on the range of these activities. An "enterprise is a legal entity possessing the right to conduct business in its own name: for example, to enter into contracts, own property, incur liability for debts, and establish bank accounts. In the Eastern European countries and the former USSR, the reference unit is normally the enterprise and this is usually defined as the unit having a single administration with the right to conclude contracts, an independent production plan, an independent current bank account and a self-contained system of bookkeeping with independent balance sheets and profit-and-loss statements. Specific information on the character of the units covered in the tables for each country is set out in the introductory note to each chapter.

CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF THE ITEMS


The United Nations standards which have been applied are set out below. All values are in national currency units and are at current prices unless otherwise indicated.

Number of persons engaged, number of employees and number of operatives
The number of persons engaged is defined as the total number of persons who worked in or for the establishment during the reference year. However, home-workers are excluded. The concept covers working proprietors, active business partners and unpaid family workers as well as employees. The figures reported refer normally to the average number of persons engaged during the reference year, obtained as the sum of the "average number of employees" during the year and the total number of other persons engaged measured for a single period of the year. The category "employees" is intended to include all persons engaged other than working proprietors, active business partners and unpaid family workers.
The category "operatives" refers to all employees engaged in production or the related activities of the establishment, including any clerical or working supervisory personnel whose function is to record or expedite any step in the production process. Employees of a similar type engaged in activities ancillary to the main activity of the establishment and those engaged in truck driving, repair and maintenance and so on are also considered to be operatives.

Wages and salaries


The estimates of wages and salaries include all payments in cash or in kind made to "employees" or "operatives", as the case may be, during the reference year in relation to work done for the establishment. The payments include: (a) direct wages and salaries; (b) remuneration for time not worked; (c) bonuses and gratuities; (d) housing allowances and family allowances paid directly by the employer; and (e) payments in kind. Excluded are the employers' contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security, pension and insurance schemes, as well as the benefits received by employees under these schemes and severance and termination pay.

Supplements to wages and salaries


This item covers all payments made by the employer on behalf of the employees which are normally considered in national accounting practice to form part of compensation of employees, but not of wages and salaries. Examples are: (a) statutory social security contributions; (b) collectively agreed, contractual and non-obligatory contributions to private pension and insurance schemes; (c) direct payments to employees in respect of absence from work owing to maternity, sickness or employment injury, to compensate for loss of earnings; other direct payments to employees comparable to social security benefits; (d) cost of medical care and health services provided by outside organizations; and (e) severance and termination pay. The sum of this item and "wages and salaries" equals total compensation of employees as defined for national accounting purposes.

Hours or days worked by operatives


Hours worked by operatives refer to the total number of hours actually spent by operatives at work, including waiting time. Overtime is included and calculated in terms of actual hours spent at work and not in terms of time paid for. Since the concept refers to hours worked rather than hours paid for, time spent on vacation and on casual or sick leave are excluded.
Days worked by operatives refer to the total number of days actually spent at work. Except for the difference in the unit of measurement, the concept is the same as that for hours worked.

Quantity of electricity consumed


The quantity of electricity consumed is defined as the sum of the quantity of electricity purchased and generated less the quantity sold to others.

Output


The measure of output normally used in the tables is the census concept which covers only activities of an industrial nature. The value of census output in the case of estimates compiled on a production basis comprises: (a) the value of all products of the establishment; (b) the net change between the beginning and the end of the reference period in the value of work in progress and stocks of goods to be shipped in the same condition as received; (c) the value of industrial work done or industrial services rendered to others; (d) the value of goods shipped in the same condition as received less the amount paid for these goods; and (e) the value of fixed assets produced during the period by the unit for its own use. In the case of estimates compiled on a shipment basis, the net change between the beginning and the end of the reference period in the value of stocks of finished goods is also included. Gross output is equivalent to census output plus the revenue from activities of a non-industrial nature. Valuation may be in factor values, excluding all indirect taxes falling on production and including all current subsidies received in support of production activity, or in producers' prices, including all indirect taxes and excluding all subsidies.

Value added


The measure of value added normally used in the tables is the census concept, which is defined as the value of census output less the value of census input, which covers: (a) value of materials and supplies for production (including cost of all fuel and purchased electricity); and (b) cost of industrial services received (mainly payments for contract and commission work and repair and maintenance work). If input estimates are compiled on a "received" rather than on a "consumed" basis, the result is adjusted for the net change between the beginning and the end of the period in the value of the stocks of materials, fuel and other supplies.

Total value added is the national accounting concept. It is ideally represented by the contribution of the establishments in each branch of activity to the gross domestic product. For the measure of total value added, the cost of non-industrial services is deducted from and the receipts for non-industrial services are added to census value added. The estimates, whether in terms of census value added or total value added, are gross of depreciation and other provisions for capital consumption, unless otherwise stated. The valuation may be in factor values or in producers' prices, depending on the treatment of indirect taxes and subsidies.

Gross fixed capital formation


The estimates refer to the value of purchases and own-account construction of fixed assets during the reference year less the value of corresponding sales. The fixed assets covered are those, whether new or used, with a productive life of one year or more which are intended for the use of the establishment, including fixed assets made by the establishment's own labour force for its own use. Major additions, alterations and improvements to existing assets which extend with normal economic life or raise their productivity are also included.

New fixed assets include all those that have not been previously used in the country. Thus, newly imported fixed assets are considered new whether or not used before they were imported. Used fixed assets include all those that have been previously used within the country. Transactions in fixed assets include: (a) land; (b) buildings, other construction and land improvements; (c) transport equipment; and (d) machinery and other equipment. The data for machinery and other equipment are separately shown in the tables, where available. This category covers industrial machinery: office machinery, equipment, furniture and furnishings; art objects; professional instruments and equipment; and any other machinery and equipment. Major alterations and improvements of these existing types of machinery and equipment are included.

Assets acquired from others are valued at purchasers' prices, which cover all costs directly connected with the acquisition and installation of the items for use. In principle, assets produced on own account are also valued in this manner. However, it may frequently be necessary to value such own-account production at explicit cost, including any imputations that may be required in respect of the employed own-account labour. Assets produced by one establishment of a multi-establishment enterprise for the use of another establishment of the same enterprise should be valued by the receiving establishment as though purchased from outside the enterprise. Sales of assets should be valued at the actual amounts realized rather than at book values.

Value of stocks


The estimates comprise the value of all stocks owned by the parent enterprise and held by, or under the control of the reporting establishment, either at the establishment itself or elsewhere at the end of the reference year. The components are: materials, fuels and supplies; work in progress; finished goods and goods to be shipped in the same condition as received. In principle, stocks of materials are valued at current replacement cost; an imputed valuation of the work done, including an imputed margin for overhead costs and profits, is used for work in progress; stocks of finished goods are valued in the same manner as the finished products manufactured by the establishment. In practice, however, the book values are frequently used.

Index numbers of industrial production


The indices in the tables are compiled from national indices which are calculated by use of the Laspeyres formula. The comparison base year is 1980. However, if different base years are used in any countries, the national indices are converted to the 1980 base year.

Country nomenclature


China - Data referring to the People's Republic of China exclude those for Taiwan Province, unless otherwise stated.

Czechoslovakia - Czechoslovakia ceased to exist as of 31 December 1992. All data for the former Czechoslovakia pertain to 1991 or earlier.

Germany - Through accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany with effect from 3 October 1990, the two German States have united to form one sovereign State. As from the date of unification, the Federal Republic of Germany acts in the United Nations under the designation of Germany.

USSR - The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ceased to exist as of 24 December 1991. In the present publication, all data for the former USSR pertain to 1990 or earlier.

Yemen - On 22 May 1990, Democratic Yemen and Yemen merged to form a single State. Since that date, they have been represented as one Member with the name Yemen.

Yugoslavia - Data provided for Yugoslavia prior to 1 January 1992 refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which was composed of six republics. Data provided for Yugoslavia after that date refer to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which is composed of two republics (Serbia and Montenegro). All data for Yugoslavia pertain to 1991 or earlier.

GENERAL DISCLAIMER

The designations used in any of the files contained in the CD do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The term "country" as used in any of the files contained in the CD also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.