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Country Profile of India

Main statistical agency
Main statistical agency name
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI)
Web address
www.mospi.nic.in
Position in the government
The MOSPI is a Ministry in the Government of India.
Organizational structure and finance
Organizational structure and finance
The MOSPI is headed by the Secretary (Statistics and Programme Implementation). It has (i) Programme Implementation Wing, with an Additional Secretary, a Joint Secretary and other officers and supporting staff; (ii) Statistics Wing, comprising (a) Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), headed by the Director General and supported by 5 Additional Director Generals and other officers and supporting staff, (b) National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) headed by the Director General and supported by 3 Additional Director Generals and other officers and supporting staff, and (c) Computer Centre, headed by a Deputy Director General and other officers and supporting staff.

Central Statistical Organisation
The CSO consists five Divisions, namely, the National Accounts Division (NAD), the Industrial Statistics Division (ISD), the Economic Census Division (ECD), the Social and Miscellaneous Statistics Division (MSD), and the Training Division. The Headquarter of the CSO is located at New Delhi. The CSO has an Industrial Statistics Wing, namely, the CSO-IS Wing, which is located at Kolkata.

National Sample survey Organisation
The NSSO consists four Divisions, namely, the Survey Design and Research Division (SDRD), the Field Operations Division (FOD), the Data Processing Division (DPD), and the Coordination and Publication Division (CPD). The Survey Design and Research Division and Data Processing Division have its headquarters at Kolkata. The Field Operations Division has its headquarters at Delhi and Faridabad with a network of six Zonal offices, 48 Regional Offices and 117 Sub-Regional offices spread throughout the country. The Data Processing Division with its headquarters at Kolkata has Data Processing Centres at Delhi, Giridih, Nagpur, Bangalore, Ahmedabad and Kolkata.

The NSSO functions under the overall direction of a Governing Council with requisite independence and autonomy in the matter of collection, processing and publication of NSS data. In addition to the non-official Chairman, the Governing Council is composed of five academicians, five data users from Central and State Government departments and senior officers of the Ministry. The NSSO is headed by the Director General and Chief Executive Officer (DG&CEO) who is also the Member-Secretary of the Governing Council.

Computer Centre
The Computer Centre is located at New Delhi and is headed by a Deputy Director General.

In addition to above, the MOSPI is also responsible for the Indian Statistical Institute and ensuring its functioning in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Statistical Institute Act 1959.

The overall budget of the MOSPI, excluding the grants-in-aid, for the year 2005-06 is Rs. 1654 Million. The total number of employees in the MoSPI during 2005 is 6613.
Multi-annual or annual work program
Multi-annual or annual work program
The multi-annual or Annual Action Plan of the MOSPI details its work program. The most important of these are towards release of following statistics:

National Accounts Statistics
Annual and quarterly national accounts statistics
Input-output transactions tables every five years
Industrial Statistics
Monthly index of industrial production
Results of Annual Survey of Industries
Compendium on energy statistics
Reports on Economic Census
Social Statistics
Selected Socio-Economic Statistics, India
Women and Men in India
Compendium of Environment Statistics
Price Statistics
Monthly CPI on urban non-manual employees
Six monthly brochure giving CPI (UNME) at group or sub-group levels
Sample Surveys
Sarvekshana
Results of various surveys conducted by the NSSO
Consolidated Results of Crop Estimation Surveys on Principal Crops
General publications
Monthly Abstract of Statistics
Statistical Abstract
Statistical Pocket Book
India in Figures
Guide to Official Statistics
Directory of Statistics, India
Statistical System in India

In addition to the release of various statistics, the MOSPI works continuously towards improving the quality and coverage and dissemination of statistics through various programs. Particularly important in this context are the establishment of a data warehouse in the Computer Centre, revision of base years of various statistical series, implementation of international standards and classifications, preparation of reports on Millennium Development Goals, development of informal sector statistics, conduct of Economic Census and providing training to statistical personnel in the country.
Main duties
The main duties of the MOSPI on the statistics side are:
• Act as the nodal agency for planning integrated development of the statistical system in the country.
• Coordination of statistical work with a view to identifying gaps in data availability or duplication of statistical work in respect of Departments of the Government of India and the State DESs and to suggest necessary remedial measures.
• Laying down and maintenance of norms and standards in the field of statistics, evolving concepts, definitions and methodology of data collection, processing of data and dissemination of results.
• Advising the Departments of the Government of India on statistical methodology and on statistical analysis of data.
• Preparation of National Accounts as well as publication of annual estimates of national income, gross/net domestic product, Government and private final consumption expenditure, capital formation, savings, capital stock and consumption fixed capital, quarterly estimates of Gross Domestic Product, preparation of National Input-Output Transactions Table, State level estimates of domestic product and fixed capital formation of supra-regional sectors, preparation of comparable estimates of State Domestic Product (SDP) at current prices.
• Compilation and release of the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) every month in the form of Quick Estimates, conducting Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) and providing statistical information, to assess and evaluate the changes in the growth, composition and structure of the organised manufacturing (factories) sector.
• Compilation and release of monthly Consumer Price Index Numbers for Urban Non-Manual Employees.
• Development of Environment Statistics, development of methodology, concepts and preparation of Natural Resource Accounts for India.
• Organisation and conduct of periodic all India economic census and follow-up sample surveys.
• Conducting nation-wide sample surveys on various socio-economic aspects, such as, employment, consumer expenditure, housing conditions, debt and investment, land and livestock holdings, literacy, education, health, family welfare, unorganised manufacturing and services etc, to provide the database needed for development, research, policy formulation and economic planning.
• Conducting quality checks and auditing of statistical surveys and data sets through technical scrutiny and sample checks and generate correction factors and alternative estimates, if required.
• Undertaking the processing of survey data collected through various socio-economic surveys and follow up surveys of Economic Census and Annual Survey of Industries by the National Sample Survey Organisation and the Central Statistical Organisation.
• Dissemination of statistical information through a number of regular or adhoc publications to Government, semi-Government or private data users/agencies, and dissemination of data, on request, to United Nations Agencies like United Nations Statistics Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, International Labour Organisation and other relevant international agencies.
• Giving grants-in-aid to registered non-governmental organisations and research institutions of repute for undertaking special studies or surveys, printing of statistical reports and finance seminars, workshops or conferences relating to different subject areas of official statistics.
• Functioning as the Cadre Controlling Authority and dealing with all aspects of managing the Indian Statistical Service including all matters pertainin to training, career planning and manpower planning.
• The Indian Statistical Institute and ensuring its functioning in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Statistical Institute Act, 1959 (57 of 1959).
• Undertaking methodological studies and pilot surveys for evolving better sampling techniques and estimation procedures including small area estimates
• Functioning as Cadre Controlling Authority for Subordinate Statistical Service

The Central Statistical Organisation is responsible for coordination of statistical activities in the country, and evolving and maintaining statistical standards. Its activities include National Income Accounting; conduct of Annual Survey of Industries, Economic Censuses and its follow up surveys, compilation of Index of Industrial Production, as well as Consumer Price Indices for Urban Non-Manual Employees, Human Development Statistics, Gender Statistics, imparting training in Official Statistics, Five Year Plan work relating to Development of Statistics in the States and Union Territories; dissemination of statistical information, work relating to trade, energy, construction, and environment statistics, revision of National Industrial Classification, etc

The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) carries out socio-economic surveys, undertakes field work for the Annual Survey of Industries and follow-up surveys of Economic Census, sample checks on area enumeration and crop estimation surveys and prepares the urban frames useful in drawing of urban samples, besides collection of price data from rural and urban sectors. The major activities of the NSSO pertains to Survey Design, Field Operations, Processing of data collected and releasing of the results based on surveys.

The Computer Centre handles the data processing jobs of the MOSPI, provides training to statistical personnel on softwares, maintains the MOSPI’s website and the National Data Warehouse of Official Statistics.


Brief history and other relevant background information
Brief history and other relevant background information
OVERVIEW OF INDIAN STATISTICAL SYSTEM
The Indian Statistical System functions within the overall administrative set up of the country. India has a federal structure of Government. The division of responsibility for administration between the Union Government and the State Governments is on the basis of three-fold classification of all subjects, namely, the Union List, the State List, and the Concurrent List. The last category represents the areas where both the Union and State Governments can operate. The subject Statistics is in this list, but conduct of surveys is in the Union List. There is a further division of responsibility, by subjects or groups of subjects, among the different Ministries/Departments of the Union Government and among the Departments of State Governments, respectively, on the basis of their administrative functions.

In accordance with this structure, the Indian Statistical System is both decentralised and centralised. Large-scale statistical operations such as Population Census, Economic Census, Agricultural Census and Livestock Census and nation-wide sample surveys including the Annual Survey of Industries and the Socio-Economic surveys, as well as, compilation of macro-economic aggregates like national accounts, price indices and industrial production, are largely Central activities. The State Governments and statistical organisations of the States also collect and generate data on a number of variables.

The Central Government acts as the coordinating agency for presentation of statistics on an all-India basis even in fields where the States have the primary authority and responsibility for collection of statistics. The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation is the nodal agency for all statistical activities at all-India level. The State Directorates of Economics and Statistics (DESs) carry out the responsibility of coordination of all statistical activities at the State level and keeping liaison with the MOSPI for the purpose of coordination at all-India level.

EVOLUTION OF MOSPI
The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), which was initially set up as a Statistical Unit in the Cabinet Secretariat in 1949, became an independent organization in 1951. Subsequently, the National Sample Survey was set up as a fact-finding body in 1950. In 1961, a full-fledged Department of Statistics was created covering the CSO and the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO). The Computer Centre providing common service electronic data processing facilities was set up as an attached office of the Department of Statistics in 1966. In 1973, the Department of Statistics was transferred to the Ministry of Planning, to ensure effective coordination between planning and statistical activities. In February, 1999, the Department of Statistics and the Department of Programme Implementation were merged to form the Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation and in October, 1999, the Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation became the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

The Ministry has two wings, one relating to Statistics and the other is Programme Implementation. The Statistics Wing consists of the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) and the Computer Centre. The Programme Implementation Wing has four Divisions, namely, (i) Twenty Point Programme Division, (ii) Infrastructure Monitoring Division, (iii) Project Monitoring Division and (iv) Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme Division.The Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), which is a premier statistical institute, receives budgetary support from the MOSPI.

The Government of India Resolution of 1st June 2005 proposes to set up a Statutory Commission, namely, the National Statistical Commission (NSC) consisting of a part-time Chairperson, four part-time Members, one each from the fields (a) economic statistics; (b) social and environment statistics; (c) censuses and surveys; and (d) national accounts and state statistical systems, and Secretary, Planning Commission as Members. The Chief Statistician of India would serve as Secretary to the NSC.

Alongwith the establishment of the NSC, the CSO and the NSSO will be merged into the National Statistical Organisation (NSO), to be headed by the Chief Statistician of India (CSI). The NSO will have two wings, namely, (i) Central Statistics Office (CSO) and (ii) National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).


Legal basis
Legal basis
The Central Government’s Allocation of Business Rules, 1961, (as amended from time to time) provides for the roles and responsibilities of the MOSPI. The main Statistics Act under which data is collected by the MOSPI is the ‘Collection of Statistics Act ‘1953. The other most important Act for collection of statistics on demographic aspects of population is the ‘Population Census Act 1948’, which is administered by the Office of the Registral Genral of India, functioning under the Ministry of Home Affairs. Besides these two important Acts, there are a number of Acts, Rules and Procedures being administered by various administrative agencies on their subjects, through which statutory returns are collected by these Ministries/Departments.

Collection of Statistics Act 1953
The Collection of Statistics Act 1953 empowers the Centre as well as State Governments to collect statistics in regard to any matter concerning industry or class of industries, commercial trading and industrial concerns including factories and matters relating to welfare of labour and condition of labour. The MOSPI collects data on manufacturing establishments through the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), using the Provisions of this Act.

This Act specifies that the Central and State Government may appoint a statistical Authority, who in turn, may serve, on the owner of an industrial or a commercial concern or an individual, a notice requiring him/her to furnish certain listed information about the industrial unit. It confers the right of access to relevant records or documents and restricts publication of any information disclosing the identity of the industrial unit. It also provides for certain penalties for willfully refusing to furnish, or , the furnishing of false information.

Census Act, 1948
The Population Census, which is a Union subject, is conducted under the Census Act, 1948. The Act empowers the Central Government to take a Population Census of the country after duly notifying its intention to do so. It empowers the Central Government to appoint Census Commissioner and State Governments Census officers to take the census. The Census Act is utilized for fixing primary administrative responsibility, for obtaining necessary funds, for determining the general scope and timing of the Census, for placing a legal obligation upon the people to give truthful answers, and for placing a legal obligation upon the enumerator to record the responses faithfully. While the Act makes it obligatory for the public to answer all questions faithfully, simultaneously, it guarantees confidentiality of information in respect of individuals. It provides penalties for (a) census officers if they fail in their official work and (b) the respondents if they provide wrong information. The Act has been further amended vide the Census (Amendment) Act 1993.


Other producers of official statistics
Other producers of official statistics
The various Ministries in the Centre and the Departments in the States produce official statistics pertaining to their subjects of administration. Important among these are the Ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry, Health, Water Resources, Human Resources Development, Energy, Labour, Posts and Telecommunication, Company Affairs, Finance, Surface Transport and the Reserve Bank of India.


Statistical advisory bodies
Statistical advisory bodies
The most important of the advisory bodies functioning in the MOSPI are indicated below:
(i) Governing Council of NSSO
The Governing Council has the requisite independence and autonomy of decision to ensure that collection, processing and the publication of NSS data are free from undue influence. The autonomy includes the choice of subjects or items on which data have to be collected in a given field of investigation or in a given period, the frequency with which the data on any item are to be collected, the preparatory or pilot work to be undertaken on different subjects, the sample design to be adopted, the tabulation to be prepared, the form in which the data are to be collected and processed and the analysis and publication of results. The composition of the Governing Council includes a Chairman, two statisticians from the ISI, three eminent academicians, besides the DG, CSO and other senior officials of the Government, with DG &CEO (NSSO) as the Member-Secretary. As per the resolution, the Chairman shall be appointed for a period of five years. The term of appointment of other non-officials shall be for two years each. The Directors of State Statistical Bureaus and the Statistical/Economic Advisers of Central Government Ministries/Departments who are members of the Governing Council will also have a two-year term.

(ii) Advisory Committee on National Accounts Statistics
The Advisory Committee on National Accounts Statistics (ACNAS) is headed by an eminent economist, and comprises few academicians and senior officials from the MOSPI and other central Ministries and State DESs. This is an advisory body and meets as and when a need arises. Its main role is in the field of national accounts statistics.

(iii) Standing Committee on Industrial Statistics
The Standing Committee on Industrial Statistics (SCIS) is headed by an eminent academician and comprises few academicians and senior officials from the MOSPI and other central Ministries and State DESs. This is an advisory body and meets as and when a need arises. Its main role is in the field of industrial statistics.

(iv) Technical Advisory Committee on Statistics of Prices and Cost of Living
The Technical Advisory Committee on Statistics of Prices and Cost of Living (TAC-SPCL) is headed by the DG, CSO an eminent academician and is represented by few statisticians and economists from the government agencies and academic circle, besides 3 state representatives (by rotation). The Committee mainly focuses on issues relating to indices of price and cost of living.


Data collection
Most recent population census
Population Census: 1 March 2001

Data collection: Most recent
Economic Census : 2005
Agriculture Census: 2000
Livestock Census: 2003
Employment and Unemployment Survey: 2004-05
Consumer Expenditure Survey: 2004-05
Access to administrative data
Access to administrative data
Administrative data is disseminated by the respective administrative agencies, directly, through their publications and through the internet. For example, data on agriculture production and prices are available on the Ministry of Agriculture website. For general access to administrative data, users may browse through www.nic.in under various Ministries/Departments.
Data confidentiality
Data confidentiality
In order to maintain confidentiality, individual responses collected from enterprises/factories are not disclosed. However, the data is given to the researchers under pseudo ID particulars.


Data dissemination
Release calendar (existence, when and how published)
Data dissemination
Release calendar (existence, when and how published)
Advance Release Calendar (ARC) is available for the following:
(i) National Accounts Statistics
(ii) Index of industrial production
(iii) CPI (Urban Non Manual Employees)
The ARC is placed on the website of MOSPI, www.mospi.nic.in , 4 months ahead of release dates. The ARC of the above data categories is also available on the IMF’s website, www.dsbb.imf.org
Main publications
National Accounts Statistics
Annual and quarterly national accounts statistics
Input-output transactions tables every five years
Industrial Statistics
Monthly index of industrial production
Results of Annual Survey of Industries
Compendium on energy statistics
Reports on Economic Census
Social Statistics
Selected Socio-Economic Statistics, India
Women and Men in India
Compendium of Environment Statistics
Price Statistics
Monthly CPI on urban non-manual employees
Sample Surveys
Sarvekshana
Results of various surveys conducted by the NSSO
Consolidated Results of Crop Estimation Surveys on Principal Crops
General publications
Monthly Abstract of Statistics
Statistical Abstract
Statistical Pocket Book
India in Figures
Guide to Official Statistics
Directory of Statistics, India
Statistical System in India
Languages of main publications
English and Hindi
How are data disseminated (Paper, CD Rom, Website, online databases, databanks)?
Most publications of the MOSPI are available on the Ministry’s website, www.mospi.nic.in, which can be downloaded by the users free of charge. The recent publications are available in paper, and on CD-Rom.
Availability of microdata for research purposes
The MOSPI makes available microdata, after erasing the individual identification particulars, on payment basis. Users may contact the contact persons listed on the MOSPI’s website, www.mospi.nic.in




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