Statistics and indicators on women and men

 

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Table 5.D -Indicators of economic activity
 
 
 
% women in
 
     
the adult
 
 
Adult (15+) economic activity rate (%) 
 
labour force
 
 
  1990 
1995/2002
 
1995/2002  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Africa 
Algeria
19
a
76
a
7
 
47
 
12
 
Angola
74
a
90
a 
73
a
90
a
46
 
Benin
76
a
84
a 
75
a
84
a
49
 
Botswana
66
 
84
 
48
 
70
 
45
 
Burkina Faso
78
a 
91
a 
77
a 
90
a 
47
 
Burundi
91
 
90
 
83
a 
93
a 
50
 
Cameroon
47
a 
87
a 
48
a 
86
a 
37
 
Cape Verde
41
 
85
 
44
a
89
a 
39
 
Central African Rep.
70
a 
88
a 
69
a 
87
a
47
 
Chad
66
a 
89
a
67
a 
88
a 
44
 
Comoros
63
a 
88
a 
63
a 
86
a 
42
 
Congo
59
a 
84
a 
58
a 
83
a  
43
 
Côte d'Ivoire
43
a 
89
a 
44
a 
88
a 
32
 
Dem. Rep. of the Congo
62
a 
85
a 
62
a 
85
a  
43
 
Egypt
27
73
20
t
69
t
22
t
Equatorial Guinea
46
a 
88
a 
45
a
91
a 
36
 
Eritrea
76
a 
87
a 
75
a 
87
a
47
 
Ethiopia
58
a 
86
a 
72
 
90
 
46
 
Gabon
64
a 
85
a 
63
a 
84
a 
44
 
Gambia
69
a 
91
a 
70
a 
90
a 
44
 
Ghana
82
a 
83
a 
81
a 
83
a 
51
 
Guinea
79
a 
88
a 
78
a 
87
a 
47
 
Guinea-Bissau
57
a 
92
a 
57
a 
92
a 
40
 
Kenya
75
a 
90
a 
74
a 
89
a 
46
 
Lesotho
47
a 
86
a 
56
 
69
 
37
 
Liberia
54
a 
85
a 
54
a 
84
a 
39
 
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
21
a 
81
a 
23
a 
78
a 
21
 
Madagascar
70
a 
90
a 
69
a 
89
a 
44
 
Malawi
80
a 
88
a 
76
 
79
 
50
 
Mali
73
a 
90
a 
72
a 
90
a 
46
 
Mauritania
65
a 
87
a 
64
a 
86
a 
44
 
Mauritius
35
 
81
 
41
 
80
 
35
 
Morocco
39
 
80
 
26
 
78
 
25
 
Mozambique
84
a 
92
a 
83
a 
91
a 
49
 
Namibia
54
a 
82
a 
54
a 
81
a 
41
 
Niger
70
a 
94
a 
70
a 
93
a 
44
 
Nigeria
47
a 
88
a 
48
a 
87
a 
36
 
Reunion
44
 
67
 
47
a 
67
a 
43
 
Rwanda
84
a 
94
a 
85
b
87
b
56
b
Senegal
25
 
85
 
61
a 
86
a 
42
 
Sierra Leone
42
a 
85
a 
44
a 
84
a 
36
 
Somalia
64
a 
88
a 
64
a 
87
a 
43
 
South Africa
46
a 
80
a 
46
 
79
 
37
 
Sudan
24
 
76
 
29
 
75
 
28
 
Swaziland
40
a 
80
a 
36
 
58
 
37
 
Togo
53
a 
88
a 
53
a 
87
a 
39
 
Tunisia
33
a 
80
a 
24
 
73
 
24
 
Uganda
81
a 
92
a 
81
a 
91
a 
48
 
United Rep. of Tanzania
83
a 
89
a 
83
a 
89
a 
49
 
Zambia
66
a 
87
a 
66
a 
86
a 
45
 
Zimbabwe
67
a 
86
a 
65
 
74
 
48
 
 
 
 
 
 
Latin America/Caribbean
Argentina
29
 
79
 
41
 
76
 
37
 
Bahamas
65
 
79
 
66
 
74
 
49
 
Barbados
60
 
76
 
62
 
73
 
49
 
Belize
23
a 
87
a 
34
 
79
 
31
 
Bolivia
24
 
85
 
60
82
45
Brazil
44
85
54
 
81
 
42
 
Chile
32
 
75
 
35
 
73
 
33
 
Colombia
46
80
58
80
47
Costa Rica
33
83
42
80
35
Cuba
42
a 
75
a 
47
a 
77
a 
38
 
Dominican Republic
34
a 
86
a 
38
 
86
 
30
 
Ecuador
28
 
82
 
53
 
81
 
41
 
El Salvador
51
 
80
 
44
 
76
 
41
 
Guadeloupe
52
 
70
 
56
a 
73
a 
44
 
Guatemala
28
a 
90
a 
23
 
74
 
24
 
Guyana
37
a 
83
a 
40
a 
84
a 
33
 
Haiti
49
 
80
 
57
a 
82
a 
43
 
Honduras
34
a 
87
a 
43
 
85
 
36
 
Jamaica
62
77
69
 
81
 
46
 
Martinique
54
 
66
 
55
a 
72
a 
47
 
Mexico
22
 
76
 
39
 
82
 
35
 
Netherlands Antilles
52
a 
74
a 
53
 
67
 
49
 
Nicaragua
40
 
86
 
22
q 
51
q 
31
q 
Panama
32
 
77
 
45
80
36
Paraguay
51
 
83
 
35
 
87
 
29
 
Peru
29
 
80
 
59
b
80
b
45
b
Puerto Rico
31
e
61
e
36
e
58
e
43
e
Suriname
44
 
68
 
33
61
37
Trinidad and Tobago
38
 
74
 
47
 
75
 
38
 
Uruguay
43
67
 
47
b d
65
b d
45
bd
Venezuela
38
 
82
 
55
 
84
 
39
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asia
Afghanistan
46
a 
86
a 
43
 
49
 
34
 
Armenia
63
a 
76
a 
35
 
41
 
48
 
Azerbaijan
52
a 
75
a 
43
49
c
48
Bahrain
29
a 
88
a 
24
 
65
 
22
 
Bangladesh
66
a 
88
a 
56
 
87
 
37
 
Bhutan
58
a 
91
a 
58
a 
90
a 
39
 
Brunei Darussalam
43
a 
82
a 
47
a 
83
a 
34
 
Cambodia
82
a 
84
a 
74
 
81
 
52
 
China
73
 
85
 
74
a 
86
a 
45
 
Cnina,  Hong Kong SAR
47
 
79
 
52
 
73
 
44
 
China,  Macao SAR
54
a 
83
a 
56
 
73
47
Cyprus
48
 
82
 
53
 
72
 
44
 
Dem. People's Rep.of Korea
61
a 
79
a 
62
a 
82
a 
44
 
Georgia
56
a 
75
a 
56
 
76
 
47
 
India
40
a 
86
a 
41
a 
86
a 
31
 
Indonesia
45
 
83
 
52
 
85
 
38
 
Iran (Islamic Rep. of)
21
a 
81
a 
11
 
75
 
12
 
Iraq
15
a 
75
a 
17
a 
75
a 
18
 
Israel
41
 
62
48
 
61
 
46
 
Jordan
17
a 
76
a
22
 
76
 
21
 
Kazakstan
61
a 
78
a
60
a 
76
a 
46
 
Kuwait
38
a 
85
a 
43
 
83
 
25
 
Kyrgyzstan
59
a 
74
a 
60
a
74
a 
47
 
Lao People's Dem. Rep.
75
a 
90
a 
75
a 
89
a 
47
 
Lebanon
24
a 
74
a 
27
a 
76
a 
28
 
Malaysia
45
g
82
g
44
g
79
g
35
g
Maldives
20
a 
77
a 
37
 
71
 
34
 
Mongolia
72
a 
85
a 
36
 
38
 
47
 
Myanmar
66
a 
89
a 
66
a 
88
a 
44
 
Nepal
56
a 
88
a 
57
 
86
 
40
 
Occupied Palestinian Territory
6
h
66
h
10
r 
66
r 
14
r 
Oman
13
a 
82
a 
13
 
59
 
18
 
Pakistan
11
 
85
 
3
 
69
 
3
 
Philippines
48
 
82
 
53
 
82
 
39
 
Qatar
33
a 
94
a 
34
a 
71
a 
13
 
Republic of Korea
47
74
49
74
41
Saudi Arabia
15
a 
85
a 
18
a 
82
a 
11
 
Singapore
50
 
79
 
56
 
81
 
40
 
Sri Lanka
45
 
78
 
37
 
76
 
34
 
Syrian Arab Republic
24
a 
78
a 
24
 
82
 
21
 
Tajikistan
52
a 
74
a 
55
a 
74
a
44
 
Thailand
76
88
65
81
45
Timor-Leste
76
a 
89
a 
75
a 
89
a 
44
 
Turkey
34
 
80
 
27
 
71
 
28
 
Turkmenistan
59
a 
78
a 
61
a 
78
a 
45
 
United Arab Emirates
29
a 
91
a 
31
 
92
 
12
 
Uzbekistan
59
a 
75
a 
61
a 
74
a 
46
 
Viet Nam
76
a 
85
a 
75
a 
84
a 
49
 
Yemen
28
a 
81
a 
29
a 
82
a 
27
 
 
 
 
 
 
Oceania
Fiji
27
a 
84
a 
39
 
79
 
33
 
Papua New Guinea
67
a 
88
a 
67
a
87
a 
42
 
Solomon Islands
83
a 
89
a 
83
 a
90
a 
46
 
Tonga
36
 
76
 
42
 
75
 
36
 
 
 
 
 
 
Developed regions
Albania
58
a 
83
a 
50
 
75
 
41
 
Australia
52
 
75
 
55
 
72
 
44
 
Austria
43
 
70
 
50
 
68
 
44
 
Belarus
61
a 
76
a 
46
 
45
 
53
 
Belgium
37
 
61
 
43
 
61
 
43
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina
43
a 
76
a 
44
a 
75
a 
38
 
Bulgaria
60
a 
68
a 
46
 
55
 
47
 
Canada
59
i 
76
i
61
 
73
 
46
 
Croatia
48
a 
71
a 
45
 
62
 
44
 
Czech Republic
61
 
74
 
51
 
60
 
44
 
Denmark
62
 
75
 
74
s 
82
s
47
s 
Estonia
63
j
75
j
51
k
69
k
49
k
Finland
65
 
74
 
57
k
67
k
48
k
France
46
 
64
 
48
 
62
 
46
 
Germany
44
l
72
l
49
 
66
 
44
 
Greece
35
 
66
 
38
 
61
 
40
 
Hungary
48
 
68
 
46
k
61
k
45
k
Iceland
66
 
82
 
79
m
88
m
47
m
Ireland
36
 
69
 
48
 
71
 
41
 
Italy
36
d
64
d
36
62
39
Japan
50
 
77
 
49
 
76
 
41
 
Latvia
63
a 
77
a 
51
 
66
 
48
 
Lithuania
60
a 
75
a 
46
55
49
Luxembourg
34
 
68
 
42
 
65
 
41
 
Malta
23
a
73
a 
31
 
69
 
32
 
Netherlands
53
g
80
g
54
73
43
New Zealand
54
 
74
 
57
 
72
 
45
 
Norway
62
77
70
m
77
m
47
m
Poland
57
a 
75
a 
49
 
63
 
46
 
Portugal
50
 
74
 
54
 
70
 
46
 
Republic of Moldova
61
a 
75
a 
43
 
46
 
50
 
Romania
55
 
67
 
56
 
69
 
46
 
Russian Federation
60
a 
76
a 
52
n
67
n
48
n
Serbia and Montenegro
50
a 
72
a 
50
 
71
 
42
 
Slovakia
63
a 
75
a 
53
 
68
 
46
 
Slovenia
55
a 
71
a 
52
 
65
 
46
 
Spain
33
e
68
e
42
e
67
e
40
e
Sweden
71
m
78
m
76
o
80
o
48
o
Switzerland
49
 
79
 
58
 
78
 
45
 
The FYR of Macedonia
49
a 
73
a 
42
64
39
Ukraine
57
a 
73
a 
58
68
49
United Kingdom
53
e
75
e
56
e
71
e
45
e
United States
58
e
76
e
60
e p
74
e p
47
p

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Sources: 

ILO Yearbook of Labour Statistics, 2003 (Geneva, 2003) and Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM) Third Edition,(Geneva, 2003), table 1. KILM table 1 was compiled from the following sources: ILO, Yearbook of Labour Statistics,2002(Geneva, 2002); ILO, Economically Active Population, 1950-2010, fourth edition (Geneva, 1996);OECD, Labour Force Statistics Database, http://www.oecd.org and ILO Regional office for Latin America (Panama).

Footnotes:

a From estimates of economically active population prepared by ILO in 1996 (see sources).
b Urban areas.
c Data for female are for aged 16 to 57 years; male for aged 16 to 62 years.
d For persons aged 14 or over.
e For persons aged 16 or over.
f The data relate to the districts of Wanica and Paramaribo.
g For persons aged 15 to 64.
h Data for Gaza Strip only.
i Data exclude territories of Yukon, North West Territories and Nunavut.
j For persons aged 20 or over.
k For persons aged 15 to 74.
l Data for 1990 do not include the former German Democratic Republic.
m For persons aged 16 to 74.
n For persons aged 15 to 72.
o For persons aged 16 to 64.
p Data are not strictly comparable with 1990 data due to the introduction of revised population controls.
qFor persons aged 10 or over.
rData for Gaza Strip and West Bank.
sFor persons aged 15 to 66.
tEgyptian population only.

Technical notes:

Table 5.D presents statistics on women and men in the economically active population aged 15 or over.

Indicators concerning the total economically active population aged 15 or over have been compiled mainly from the International Labour Office (ILO). Data shown are for 1990 and the latest year between 1995 and 2002 for which data are available. The first indicator is the economic activity rate, defined as the proportion of the population aged 15 or over who furnish, or are available to furnish, the supply of labour for production of goods and services in accordance with the System of National Accounts. The second indicator on economic activity is the percentage of women among the total labour force.

Issues concerning statistics on economically active women are discussed in the box entitled "Concepts related to the labour force" in chapter 5 of the report The World's Women 2000, and in a box entitled "Counting economically active women" in The World's Women 1970-1990: Trends and Statistics. The definition of the economically active population provided by the ILO comprises all employed and unemployed persons, including those seeking work for the first time, employers operating unincorporated enterprises, persons working on their own account, employees, contributing family workers, members of producers' co-operatives and members of the armed forces. In principle, a person who performs such work for as little as one hour per week is considered economically active. ILO's recommended definition also accounts for production of primary products, such as foodstuffs, fetching/transporting water and collecting firewood for own consumption. Certain other non-monetary activities---e.g. construction, major repair and renovation of owner-occupied dwelling---are considered economic activity and persons engaged in such production are regarded as economically active.

Specific elements of the standard concepts differ substantially from country to country (e.g., the choice of reference period and the determination of minimum hours of work and unpaid family work, including production for own consumption), and these differences may result in underestimation of women's participation in economic activity. Moreover, censuses and surveys are seldom conducted regularly and the results in developing regions become available only after several years. Stereotypes held by census and survey interviewers and respondents' own perceptions about what does or does not constitute economic activity may also lead to errors in the reporting and recording of the economic activity, resulting in underestimation of women's economic activity. In addition, in many countries, women are engaged predominantly in those economic activities that are the most difficult to measure, such as subsistence production and informal sector or home-based work.