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National Classifications

Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations
(ANZSCO)

Country / Area: Australia

Classification category: Occupation classifications

 
General information
1 (a)Name of the current national classification (full name in official national languages and in English with acronyms in brackets, should be given)Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO), First Edition, Revision 1
1 (b)In which language(s) is the classification available?English
1 (c)Can the classification (or information about it) be accessed on the Internet? If yes, please provide the URL.Yes - Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) website

www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/1220.

 
Classification structure
2 (a)Please describe the structure of the classification: How many levels does the classification have? (Please provide labels, such as “Division”, “Class”) How many categories exist at each level?ANZSCO has a hierarchical structure. It comprises 8 Major Groups, 43 Sub-Major Groups, 97 Minor Groups, 358 Unit Groups, and 1014 Occupations.
2 (b)Please provide examples of the coding system used at each level.Major Group codes are denoted by 1-digit and range from 1 to 8.
Examples: 1 Managers
2 Professionals

Sub-Major Group codes are denoted by 2-digits, the first comprising the relevant major group code plus an additional digit. They range from 11 to 89.
Examples: 11 Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators
12 Farmers and Farm Managers

Minor Group codes are denoted by 3-digits, the first two comprising the relevant sub-major group code plus an additional digit. They range from 111 to 899.
Examples: 111 Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators
121 Farmers and Farm Managers

Unit Group codes are denoted by 4-digits, the first three comprising the relevant minor group code plus an additional digit. They range from 1111 to 8999.
Examples: 1111 Chief Executives and Managing Directors
1112 General Managers
1113 Legislators

Occupation codes are denoted by 6-digits, the first four comprising the relevant unit group code plus an additional two digits. They range from 111111 to 899999.
Examples: 111111 Chief Executive or Managing Director
111211 Corporate General Manager
111212 Defence Force Senior Officer

 
Relationship to international standards
3 (a)Is this classification based on (or linked to) an international standard classification? If yes, please describe.Yes. ANZSCO is linked to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), both the 1988 and 2008 editions. It uses the same concepts as ISCO (skill level and skill specialisation) but applies them to suit the Australian and New Zealand labour markets and Australian and New Zealand data users.
3 (b)Is the classification structure identical to the international standard or, if not, how does it differ? (e.g. have additional levels been added to the international standard or have changes been made within the level of the international structure, such as aggregations or additional breakdowns)In common with ISCO, the ANZSCO structure comprises major group, sub-major group, minor group and unit group levels. ANZSCO, however, defines an additional level of detail - occupation - which is a disaggregation of the unit group level.

The individual categories (at each level of ANZSCO) are quite different to those defined in ISCO. The differences in the individual categories exist to more appropriately reflect the structure of the Australian and New Zealand labour markets, and to meet specific statistical needs.

A correspondence table (concordance) between ANZSCO and ISCO-88 is available from the ABS website. A correspondence table between ANZSCO and ISCO-08 is available on request.

3 (c)Please describe deviations from the international standard (in terms of structure, methodology or application rules). Please use examples, if a general statement is not possible.The concepts, principles and methods of application adopted in ANZSCO are similar to or the same as those used in ISCO-88 and ISCO-08. The concepts of job, occupation, skill level and skill specialisation are used in both ANZSCO and ISCO to define classification categories and group them into hierarchical structures, however, they are applied differently in ANZSCO to suit Australian and New Zealand labour markets.

One particular point of difference is that the boundaries between skill levels are defined differently in ANZSCO; and ANZSCO defines five skill levels (compared to four in ISCO).

3 (d)At what level of the international standard can data be reported for international comparison? (Please provide examples of programmes / indicators if reporting takes place at different levels of the classification.)Data can be reported at any level of ISCO as data is coded to the occupation (6-digit) level of ANZSCO. Data collected in ABS sample surveys, however, is most commonly reported at the major (1-digit) or sub-major (2-digit) group levels of ISCO. For example, Australia recently participated in the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies and occupation data was reported to an international consortium at the sub-major group level of ISCO-08.
3 (e)If no links to international classifications exist or no international standard is used, please state if there are plans to use international norms in the future.Not applicable.
 
Classification uses
4 (a)Please state for which statistical purposes (surveys etc.) this classification is used and if there are users outside of the Statistical Office. Please indicate at which level the classification is used for data collection and for data publishing.The ABS uses ANZSCO to compile and disseminate occupation statistics in the 5-yearly Census of Population and Housing and in all surveys in which occupation is collected. The surveys cover topics such as the labour force, employee earnings and hours, labour price indices, household expenditure and a range of social topics such as causes of death and adult literacy.

The ABS codes occupation data at the unit group (4-digit) or occupation (6-digit) levels of ANZSCO and with the exception of output from the population census, publishes data at the unit group level or higher of ANZSCO. Data from the population census is the only ABS collection from which data can be published at the occupation (6-digit or most detailed) level of ANZSCO.

The Australian Government and other groups and researchers such as the National Institute of Labour Studies use ABS occupation statistics to inform the planning and development of labour market, skills and some social policies.

4 (b)Please give the names of institutions that use the classification for non-statistical purposes (as opposed to statistical purposes in question 4(a)). Also indicate the kind of use (e.g. tax offices, social security, customs, enterprise register, employment services, work permits etc.)A wide range of Australian Government departments and non-government organisations use ANZSCO for non-statistical purposes.

The Australian Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship use ANZSCO to assess the skills of migrants applying to enter Australia under various skilled migration visa classes.

Several Australian state governments use ANZSCO to develop occupation profiles for their workforces. Organisations reporting to the Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency will soon be required to use ANZSCO to report occupation data.

ANZSCO is also used by government and non-government businesses offering careers planning services, and by workers compensation agencies to classify occupations in which workplace injuries occur.

4 (c)Please indicate if alternative classifications are used by other institutions of the economy. Are these classifications available and useful for the Statistical Office?The Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations links unit groups in ANZSCO to information about knowledge, skills and abilities of occupations described in the United States O*Net. These attributes of occupations exceed the requirements of a statistical classification.

Some external users of ANZSO implement additional codes and categories for their specific use that are not part of the published classification structure.

 
Implementation / revision status
5 (a)Please state the date of the official adoption of the classification. If not yet adopted, please indicate the current state (e.g. in development, sent for approval, in printing, ready to be distributed etc.)The ANZSCO First Edition was published on 11 September 2006 and it was implemented in relevant ABS collections from mid-2006.

The ANZSCO First Edition Revision 1 was published on 25 June 2009 and it was implemented in relevant ABS collections from 1 July 2009, and continues to be used.

5 (b)Please state the date of use of the classification for individual statistical programmes.While ANZSCO was officially adopted in 2006, individual statistical programmes within the ABS implemented the classification at different times over the following few years. The classification has now been fully implemented for a number of years.
5 (c)Are there existing plans for revision or update of the current classification?A minor review of ANZSCO First Edition Revision 1 is being carried out at the present time and the results of this review are expected to be available by June 2013.
5 (d)Name of former (previous) national classification (full name in both national tongue and in English with acronyms in brackets, should be given)Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO), Second Edition
5 (e)Please describe the link of the former classification to international classificationsASCO Second Edition links to the International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1988 (ISCO-88) in much the same way that ANZSCO links to ISCO-08 i.e. it used the same underlying concepts but applied them to suit the Australian labour market and Australian data users.
5 (f)Please describe the structure of the former classification and indicate the number of items at each level of the classification. (similar to question 2(a))ASCO Second Edition has a hierarchical structure. It comprises 9 Major Groups, 35 Sub-Major Groups, 81 Minor Groups, 340 Unit Groups, and 986 Occupations.
5 (g)Do conversion tables exist between the former and current classification?A correspondence table between ANZSCO First Edition Revision 1 and ASCO Second Edition exists and is available from the ABS website.
5 (h)When was the former classification implemented?ASCO Second Edition was implemented in relevant ABS collections from 1996, including in the 1996 Census of Population and Housing. The classification was published in full on 31 July 1997.
5 (i)Are statistical data still collected or published according to the former classification? Please indicate if this statistical data is collected or published by the Statistical Office or elsewhere.The ABS no longer uses ASCO Second Edition and there are very few external users. One known external agency uses it as part of overseas arrivals and departures records.
 
Supporting documents
6 (a)Have national explanatory notes and/or guidelines been elaborated?The conceptual basis of ANZSCO and its relationship to other occupation classifications, including ISCO-88, is explained in ANZSCO.
6 (b)Do correspondence tables exist between the national and the international classifications (if applicable)?Yes.
6 (c)Are correspondence tables between alternative and current classification available (if applicable)?Not applicable.
6 (d)Does a national coding index exist?Yes. All ABS surveys and the census are coded to ANZSCO using the coding index.
6 (e)Is the classification available in electronic form? If yes, in which formats is it available?(e.g. PDF, TXT, Excel, XML)Yes. It is available in PDF and HTML versions which include explanatory text about the conceptual basis for the classification and the structure of the classification. The structure of the classification is also available in Excel datacubes, as are alternative views of the structure by five topics (Agriculture, Culture and Leisure, Health, Hospitality and Tourism, and Information and Communication Technology).
6 (f)Are the correspondence tables or indexes available in electronic form?Correspondence tables are available in Excel spreadsheets on the ABS website. The correspondence tables include:

- Summary Correspondence Table: ANZSCO First Edition Revision 1 to ASCO Second Edition to New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (NZSCO) 1999 (also available in the ANZSCO PDF)
- ANZSCO First Edition Revision 1 to ASCO Second Edition
- ANZSCO First Edition Revision 1 to NZSCO 1999
- ANZSCO First Edition Revision 1 to ISCO-88

An alphabetical index of all principal and alternative occupation titles published in ANZSCO as well as specialisations of principal occupations is available in the ANZSCO PDF and in Excel on the ABS website.

ANZSCO coding software is available for users wanting to code occupation data to ANZSCO. The coding index underpinning this software is, however, generally not made available to organisations outside the ABS.

 
Contact information
7 (a)Name of institution / office responsible for the development and maintenance of the classificationThe Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Statistics New Zealand, and the (then) Australian Government Department of Employment and Workplace Relations were responsible for the development of ANZSCO First Edition.

The ABS and Statistics New Zealand maintain ANZSCO.

7 (b)Contact address, phone number, e-mail or website for public information and inquiryPhone: ABS National Information and Referral Service
Within Australia: 1300 135 070
International callers: +61 2 9268 4909
Email: standards@abs.gov.au
Website: www.abs.gov.au

Information on ABS classifications can be found by choosing the 'Methods and Classifications' option at the top of the ABS homepage.

 
Other comments
9 (a)Please provide any other information on this classification that you consider relevantNo additional comments.

Source: UN questionnaire, 16/10/2012