ESA/STAT/AC.78/5
29 May 2001

UNITED NATIONS
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS
STATISTICS DIVISION

Meeting of the Expert Group on
International Economic and Social Classifications
New York, 18-20 June 2001

Classification of Environmental Protection Activities and Expenditure
(CEPA 2000)
with explanatory notes

STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

Document completed: 18 May 2001
For discussion and approval by the United Nations Expert Group on International Economic and Social Classifications

 

In 1994 UNECE and Eurostat developed a Classification of Environmental Protection Activities and Facilities (the part of this classification referring to activities only is called the CEPA 1994).

In co-operation with UNSD, the London Group on Environmental Accounting and many countries across the world, Eurostat produced a slightly revised version (the CEPA 2000) taking account of the practical experience in several countries of working with the CEPA 1994. The CEPA 2000 was approved by a Eurostat Working Party in January 2001.

The London Group on Environmental Accounting, upon request of the Statistical Commission, is engaged in finalising the SEEA 2000 (the System of Environmental and Economic Accounting). This is an update to the 1993 version of the SEEA which referred to a draft version of what became CEPA 1994. An extended London Group Conference and Expert meeting[1] was held in May 2001 at which CEPA 2000 was discussed.  Several participants noted that it did not cover resource management activities and that a classification of such activities is also needed.  However, within the restricted area covered by the CEPA 2000, the group recommended its inclusion in the SEEA 2000 handbook.

The SEEA 2000 handbook will be submitted to the Statistical Commission for adoption at its 2002 meeting and then published jointly by Eurostat, OECD, UN and World Bank. The SEEA 2000 handbook will include, as one of its annexes, the new CEPA 2000, including the Introductory Notes and the Explanatory Notes and Definitions.

The CEPA 2000 is therefore submitted to the United Nations Expert Group on International Economic and Social Classifications for prior discussion and, it is hoped, approval .

You are cordially invited to submit any comments, or requests for clarifications on the CEPA 2000 to Anton.Steurer@cec.eu.int.


Preface

CEPA 2000 is a very modest revision of the CEPA 1994 (the Classification of Environmental Protection Activities). The CEPA 1994 forms part of the Single European Standard Statistical Classification of Environmental Protection Activities and Facilities prepared jointly by UNECE and Eurostat.

Many countries have since used the CEPA 1994 in statistical practice. Countries and international organisations have incorporated the CEPA principles in their classification and data collection work. Relevant developments include:

·          The new Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) agreed in 1999 includes a separate division (05) for environmental protection, following CEPA principles.

·          The OECD/Eurostat Environmental Goods and Services Industry manual published in 1999 provides a classification of environment industry activities and products that follows CEPA principles in the relevant parts of that classification.

·          In the context of the EU’s "NACE/CPA Operation 2002" the class 90.00 of NACE Rev.1 (equivalent to ISIC Rev.3 division 90) will be split into 3 classes in line with CEPA principles: 90.01 - Collection and treatment of sewage, 90.02 - Collection and treatment of other waste, 90.03 - Sanitation, remediation and similar activities.

·          The Eurostat SERIEE Task Force discussed the CEPA, in particular at its March 1998, March 2000 (jointly with the London Group’s SEEA Chapter 4 sub-group) and November 2000 meetings. These discussions focused on the practical experience and the difficulties met with the CEPA 1994 in compilation work in countries, and were informed by contributions from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Canada and the United Nations Statistics Division.

·          The London Group Co-ordinating Committee, at its 10-12 April 2000 meeting, noted that a group of countries was very interested in modifying the CEPA and concluded a revised CEPA should be developed for the SEEA 2000 (the System of integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting - to be submitted for approval to the Statistical Commission in 2002 and published jointly be Eurostat, OECD, World Bank and the United Nations).

·          A draft of the CEPA 2000 was discussed by the Eurostat Working Party ‘Economic Accounts for the Environment’ and the Sub-Group ‘Expenditure Statistics’ (EU/EFTA) at their 18-19 January 2001 joint meeting. The Working Party and Sub-Group welcomed the proposal for a revised CEPA, noted it would become a world-wide classification, approved the draft CEPA 2000 subject to some wording changes in the explanatory notes and requested the revised draft should be submitted to the London Group on Environmental Accounting.

·          The extended London Group, at its 7-11 May 2001 meeting in Voorburg, recommended the CEPA 2000 for acceptance and inclusion as an annex in the SEEA 2000. The extended London Group also requested the development of an additional classification for natural resource management complementing the CEPA.

The CEPA 1994 proved to be a very useful statistical tool in practice. Therefore, the CEPA 2000 is only a modest revision at a detailed level, making the CEPA clearer, more practical and more comprehensive for the purposes of environment statistics and accounting and relating the CEPA’s structure as closely as possible to the data sources typically available.

The revision of CEPA does not require revision of time series data or of other classifications[2].

Annex 1 compares the CEPA 2000 with the 1994 version, highlighting the changes made.


The Classification of Environmental Protection Activities and Expenditure (CEPA 2000) with Explanatory Notes

Introductory notes

CEPA 2000 is a generic, multi-purpose, functional classification for environmental protection. It is used for classifying activities but also products, actual outlays (expenditure) and other transactions. The classification unit is often determined by the units of the primary data sources that are being classified and by the presentation formats used for results. For example, the analysis of government budgets and accounts requires the coding of items of government environmental protection expenditure into CEPA. Some of these expenditure items will be transfers such as subsidies or investment grants whereas others will be inputs into an environmental protection activity (e.g., wages and salaries). The compilation of environmental expenditure accounts requires determining environmental protection activities and their output of environmental protection services by categories of CEPA.

CEPA is designed to classify transactions and activities whose primary purpose is environmental protection. The management of natural resources (e.g., water supply) and the prevention of natural hazards (landslides, floods, etc.) are not included in CEPA. Resource management and prevention of natural hazards are covered in broader frameworks (e.g., SERIEE, SEEA 2000 or the OECD/Eurostat environment industry manual). Separate classifications for e.g. resource management should be set up which, together with the CEPA, would be part of a family of environment-related classifications.

Environmental protection activities are production activities in the sense of national accounts (see e.g. SNA § 6.15 or ESA § 2.103), i.e. combining resources such as equipment, labour, manufacturing techniques, information networks or products to create an output of goods or services. An activity may be a principal, secondary or ancillary activity.

Environmental protection products are

·          the environmental protection services produced by environmental protection activities,

·          adapted (cleaner) and connected products.

The expenditure recorded are the purchasers’ prices of environmental protection services and connected products and the extra costs over and above a viable but less clean alternative for cleaner products.

Expenditure for environmental protection are outlays and other transactions related to

a)         inputs for environmental protection activities (energy, raw materials and other intermediate inputs, wages and salaries, taxes linked to production, consumption of fixed capital)

b)         capital formation and the purchase of land (investment) for environmental protection activities,

c)         outlays of users for the purchase of environmental protection products

d)         transfers for environmental protection (subsidies, investment grants, international aid, donations, taxes earmarked for environmental protection, etc.)

For the presentation of aggregate results and indicators of expenditure, care is needed when adding up expenditure of different types. Available frameworks such as the SERIEE or the OECD/Eurostat PAC framework offer ways to avoid double counting of items of expenditure. In particular, they offer guidance on how to avoid mixing transfer payments with the expenditure that are financed by the transfers, and purchases of environmental products with the expenditure for their production.

Classification structure

The level 1 structure of CEPA (the 1-digits) are the CEPA classes. CEPA classes 1 to 7 are also called (environmental) domains. The main function of most 2-digits and 3-digits in CEPA is to guide classification into the classes. Selected 2-digits and 3-digits may also be used for data collection and coding as well as for publication purposes. In statistical practice, countries will have to adapt the CEPA structure to some extent, reflecting national policy priorities, data availability and other circumstances. Examples include separate 1-digit headings for traffic, international aid, energy savings programmes, general administration of the environment or soil erosion. For international comparison purposes the level 1 structure of CEPA should be fully respected.

General classification principles

Classification should be made according to the main purpose taking into account the technical nature as well as the policy purpose of an action or activity. Multi-purpose actions, activities and expenditure that address several CEPA classes should be divided by these classes. Classification under the heading ‘indivisible expenditure and activities’ should only be made as a last resort.

Classification of individual items cannot be based solely on the technical nature of the items. For example, the purchase of double-glazed windows in warm countries will typically relate to issues of noise protection, whereas in colder countries they will be a standard energy saving device. Measures to reduce fertiliser use may primarily fall under CEPA 4 (protection of groundwater), CEPA 2 (prevention of runoff to protect surface waters) or CEPA 6 (prevention of nutrient enrichment to protect biotopes) depending on the main purpose of measures and policies. Measures against forest fires will be unimportant or purely serve economic purposes (and thus fall outside of CEPA) in some countries whereas in others the main aspect of forest fires will be an environmental one related to landscape and habitat preservation rather than protection of a natural resource.

Classification of transversal activities and expenditure

Transversal activities are R&D, administration and management as well as education, training and information. All R&D should be allocated to CEPA 8. Administration and management as well as education, training and information should, to the extent possible, be allocated to the ‘Other’ positions in CEPA 1-7. Ideally, transversal activities would be identified separately, as well as by CEPA class but primary data sources related to CEPA 1-7 often do not allow this. R&D, education and training or administration and management are often either not separable from other actions relating to another class (administration or training as part of waste management, for example) or cannot be split by class (R&D data collected by industry expenditure surveys, for example). If such identification problems are considered substantial, data on R&D, administration and management and on education, training and information should not be published at the 2-digit level.

The classification of R&D in CEPA 8 follows the NABS 1993 (the Nomenclature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes and Budgets). CEPA 8 should be used when primary data following the NABS are available from R&D statistics. When this is not the case, other data sources employed (e.g., budget analysis) may not allow a systematic separation of R&D from other actions and activities. R&D may then be included under several CEPA classes.

The above considerations will apply differently across countries, depending on the availability and level of detail of primary data sources. Often, differences in the main data sources will result in different practices for coding transversal activities and expenditure, and international comparability for these may be limited.


Classification of environmental protection activites and expenditure (cepa 2000)

1     PROTECTION OF AMBIENT AIR AND CLIMATE

1.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

1.1.1     for the protection of ambient air

1.1.2     for the protection of climate and ozone layer

1.2   Treatment of exhaust gases and ventilation air

1.2.1     for the protection of ambient air

1.2.2     for the protection of climate and ozone layer

1.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

1.4   Other activities

2 WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT

2.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

2.2   Sewerage networks

2.3   Wastewater treatment

2.4   Treatment of cooling water

2.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

2.6   Other activities

3 WASTE MANAGEMENT

3.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

3.2   Collection and transport

3.3   Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste

3.3.1     Thermal treatment

3.3.2     Landfill

3.3.3     Other treatment and disposal

3.4   Treatment and disposal of non-hazardous waste

3.4.1     Incineration

3.4.2     Landfill

3.4.3     Other treatment and disposal

3.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

3.6   Other activities

4 Protection and Remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water

4.1   Prevention of pollutant infiltration

4.2   Cleaning up of soil and water bodies

4.3   Protection of soil from erosion and other physical degradation

4.4   Prevention and remediation of soil salinity

4.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

4.6   Other activities

5 NOISE AND VIBRATION ABATEMENT (excluding workplace protection)

5.1   Preventive in-process modifications at the source

5.1.1     Road and rail traffic

5.1.2     Air traffic

5.1.3     Industrial and other noise

5.2   Construction of anti noise/vibration facilities

5.2.1     Road and rail traffic

5.2.2     Air traffic

5.2.3     Industrial and other noise

5.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

5.4   Other activities

6 PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY AND LANDSCAPES

6.1   Protection and rehabilitation of species and habitats

6.2   Protection of natural and semi-natural landscapes

6.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

6.4   Other activities


7 PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION (excluding external safety)

7.1   Protection of ambient media

7.2   Transport and treatment of high level radioactive waste

7.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

7.4   Other activities

8 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

8.1   Protection of ambient air and climate

8.1.1     Protection of ambient air

8.1.2     Protection of atmosphere and climate

8.2   Protection of water

8.3   Waste

8.4   Protection of soil and groundwater

8.5   Abatement of noise and vibration

8.6   Protection of species and habitats

8.7   Protection against radiation

8.8   Other research on the environment

9 Other ENVIRONMENTAL protection activities

9.1   General environmental administration and management

9.1.1     General administration, regulation and the like

9.1.2     Environmental management

9.2   Education, training and information

9.3   Activities leading to indivisible expenditure

9.4   Activities not elsewhere classified


Explanatory notes and definitions

1     PROTECTION OF AMBIENT AIR AND CLIMATE

Protection of ambient air and climate comprises measures and activities aimed at the reduction of emissions into the ambient air or ambient concentrations of air pollutants as well as to measures and activities aimed at the control of emissions of greenhouse gases and gases that adversely affect the stratospheric ozone layer.

Excluded are measures undertaken for cost saving reasons (e.g. energy saving).

1.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

Activities and measures aimed at the elimination or reduction of the generation of air pollutants through in-process modifications related to:

·          cleaner and more efficient production processes and other technologies (cleaner technologies), ·          the consumption or use of ‘cleaner’ (adapted) products.

Cleaner technologies

Prevention activities consist of replacing an existing production process by a new process designed to reduce the generation of air pollutants during production, storage or transportation, e.g. fuel combustion improvement, recovery of solvents, prevention of spills and leaks through improving air-tightness of equipment, reservoirs and vehicles, etc.

Use of cleaner products

Prevention activities consist of modifying facilities so as to provide for the substitution of raw materials, energy, catalysts and other inputs by non- (or less) polluting products, or of treating raw materials prior to their use in order to make them less polluting, e.g. desulphuration of fuel. Expenditure under this position also include the extra-cost of the use of cleaner products (low sulphur fuels, unleaded gasoline, clean vehicles, etc.).

1.2   Treatment of exhaust gases and ventilation air

Activities involving the installation, maintenance and operation of end‑of‑pipe equipment for the removal and reduction of emissions of particulate matter or other air-polluting substances either from the combustion of fuels or from processes: filters, dedusting equipment, catalytic converters, post-combustion and other techniques. Also included are activities aimed at increasing the dispersion of gases so as to reduce concentrations of air pollutants.

Exhaust gases are emissions into the air, usually through exhaust pipes, stacks or chimneys, due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Ventilation air are exhausts of air conditioning systems of industrial establishments.

1.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

Activities aimed at monitoring the concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases, the quality of air, etc. Included are measurement services of exhaust gases from vehicles and heating systems and the monitoring related to ozone layer, greenhouse gases and climate change. Weather stations are excluded.

1.4   Other activities

All other activities and measures aimed at the protection of ambient air and climate. Includes regulation, administration, management, training, information and education activities specific to CEPA 1, when they can be separated from other activities related to the same class and from similar activities related to other environmental protection classes.

2     WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT

Wastewater management comprises activities and measures aimed at the prevention of pollution of surface water through the reduction of the release of wastewater into inland surface water and seawater. It includes the collection and treatment of wastewater including monitoring and regulation activities. Septic tanks are also included.

Excluded are actions and activities aimed at the protection of groundwater from pollutant infiltration and the cleaning up of water bodies after pollution (see CEPA 4).

Wastewater is defined as water that is of no further immediate value for the purpose for which it was used or in the pursuit of which it was produced because of quality, quantity, or time of its occurrence.

2.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

Activities and measures aimed at reducing the generation of surface water pollutants and wastewater through in-process modifications related to:

·          cleaner and more efficient production processes and other technologies (cleaner technologies), ·          the consumption or use of ‘cleaner’ (adapted) products.

Cleaner technologies

Prevention activities consist of replacing an existing production process by a new process designed to bring about a reduction of water pollutants or wastewater generated during production. It includes separation of networks, treatment and re-use of water used in the production process, etc.

Use of cleaner products

Prevention activities consist of modifying an existing production process so as to provide for the substitution of raw materials, catalysts and other inputs by non- (or less) water polluting products.

2.2   Sewerage networks

Activities aimed at the operation of sewerage networks, i.e. the collection and transport of wastewater from one or several users, as well as rainwater, by means of sewerage networks, collectors, tanks and other means of transport (sewage vehicles, etc.), including maintenance and repair.

Sewerage networks are the systems of collectors, pipelines, conduits and pumps to evacuate any wastewater (rainwater, domestic and other wastewater) from the points of generation to either a sewage treatment plant or to a point where wastewater is discharged into surface water.

2.3   Wastewater treatment

Wastewater treatment designates any process to render wastewater fit to meet applicable environmental standards or other quality norms. Three broad types of treatment (mechanical, biological, and advanced treatment) are specified below. Alternative definitions of types of treatment may be used, e.g. based on removal rates for BOD.

Mechanical treatment of wastewater designates processes of a physical and mechanical nature which result in decanted effluent and separate sludge. Mechanical processes are also used in combination and/or in conjunction with biological and advanced unit operations. Mechanical treatment is understood to include at least such processes as sedimentation, flotation, etc. The activity is aimed at separating materials in suspension by the use of screens (large solids) or through sedimentation eventually assisted by chemicals or flotation (elimination of sand, oil, part of the sludge, etc.).

Equipment includes screens for large solids, biological plants, equipment for filtration, flocculation, sedimentation; separation of oils and hydrocarbons; separation using inertia or gravity, including hydraulic and centrifugal cyclones, diaphragm floats, etc.

Biological treatment of wastewater designates processes which employ aerobic or anaerobic micro‑organisms and result in decanted effluent and separate sludge containing microbial mass together with pollutants. Biological treatment processes are also used in combination and/or in conjunction with mechanical and advanced unit operations. This activity is designed to eliminate pollution from oxidisable materials through the use of bacteria: activated sludge technique or anaerobic treatment for specific concentrated wastewater. Biodegradable materials are treated with the addition of bacteria-enriched sludge in open or closed tanks.

Treatment of wastewater by advanced technologies designates processes capable of reducing specific constituents in wastewater not normally achieved by other treatment options. Covers all unit operations which are not considered to be mechanical or biological. Includes, for example, chemical coagulation, flocculation and precipitation; break-point chlorinating; stripping; mixed media filtration; micro-screening; selective ion exchange; activated carbon absorption; reverse osmosis; ultra-filtration; elector flotation. Advanced treatment processes may be used in combination and/or in conjunction with mechanical and biological unit operations. This activity is aimed at eliminating oxidisable non-biodegradable matter at a higher level, as well as metals, nitrate, phosphorous, etc. by using powerful biological or physical and chemical action. Special equipment is required for each depollution.

Septic tanks are settling tanks through which wastewater is flowing and the suspended matter is decanted as sludge. Organic matters (in the water and in the sludge) are partly decomposed by anaerobic bacteria and other micro-organisms. Maintenance services of septic tanks (emptying etc.) and other products for septic tanks (biological activators, etc.) are included.

2.4   Treatment of cooling water

Treatment of cooling water designates "processes which are used to treat cooling water to meet applicable environmental standards before releasing it into the environment. Cooling water is used to remove heat." Means, methods, facilities used may be: air cooling (extra cost compared with water cooling), cooling towers (to the extent they are required to reduce pollution, as distinct from technical needs), cooling circuits for processing water from work sites and for condensing released vapour, equipment for enhancing the dispersion of cooling water on release, closed cooling circuits (extra cost), circuits for use of cooling water for heating purposes (extra cost).

2.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

Activities aimed at monitoring and controlling the concentration of pollutants in wastewater and the quality of inland surface water and marine water at the place wastewater is discharged (analysis and measurement of pollutants, etc.).

2.6   Other activities

All other activities and measures aimed at wastewater management. Includes regulation, administration, management, training, information and education activities specific to CEPA 2, when they can be separated from other activities related to the same class and similar activities related to other environmental protection classes.

3     WASTE MANAGEMENT

Waste management refers to activities and measures aimed at the prevention of the generation of waste and the reduction of its harmful effect on the environment. Includes the collection and treatment of waste, including monitoring and regulation activities. It also includes recycling and composting, the collection and treatment of low level radioactive waste, street cleaning and the collection of public litter.

Waste are materials that are not prime products (that is, products made for the market) for which the generator has no further use for own purposes of production, transformation, or consumption, and which he wants to dispose of. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, during the processing of raw materials to intermediate and final products, during the consumption of final products, and during any other human activity. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded. Also excluded are waste materials that are directly discharged into ambient water or air.

Hazardous waste is waste that due to its toxic, infectious, radioactive, flammable or other character defined by the legislator poses a substantial actual or potential hazard to human health or living organisms. For the purposes of this definition, "hazardous waste" comprises for each country all those materials and products which are considered to be hazardous in accordance with that country's practices. Low level radioactive waste is included, whereas other radioactive waste is excluded (see CEPA 7).

Low level radioactive waste is waste that, because of its low radionucleide content, does not require shielding during normal handling and transportation.

Treatment and disposal of waste

Treatment of waste refers to any process designed to change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition of any waste to neutralise it, render it non‑hazardous, safer for transport, amenable for recovery or storage, or to reduce it in volume. A particular waste may undergo more than one treatment process.

Composting and recycling activities for the purpose of environmental protection are included. Often composting is a waste treatment method and the resulting compost provided free of charge or at a very low price. The manufacture of compost classified in division 24 of ISIC/NACE (Manufacture of fertilisers and nitrogen compounds) is excluded.

Division 37 of ISIC/NACE defines recycling as "the processing of waste, scraps whether or not used, into a form feasible to be transformed in new raw materials. Typical is that, in terms of commodities, both input and output consist of waste and scrap, the input being sorted or unsorted but always unfit for further direct use in an industrial process whereas the output is made fit for further processing and is to be considered then as an intermediate good. A process is required, either mechanical or chemical". The main purpose of activities classified in division 37 of ISIC/NACE is the manufacture of secondary raw materials but there may be important secondary waste management activities.

Compost and secondary raw materials (as well as products made of secondary raw materials) are not considered environmental protection products. Their use is excluded.

Disposal of waste is the final deposition of waste on or underground in controlled or uncontrolled fashion, in accordance with the sanitary, environmental or security requirements.

3.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

Activities and measures aimed at eliminating or reducing the generation of solid waste through in-process modifications related to:

·          cleaner and more efficient production processes and other technologies (cleaner technologies), ·          the consumption or use of ‘cleaner’ (adapted) products.

Cleaner technologies

Prevention activities consist of replacing an existing production process by a new process designed to reduce the toxicity or volume of waste produced during the production process, including by separation and re-processing.

Use of cleaner products

Protection activities consist of modifying or adapting the production process or facilities so as to provide for the substitution of raw materials, catalysts and other intermediate inputs by new, "adapted" inputs the use of which produces less waste or less hazardous waste.

3.2   Collection and transport

Collection and transport of waste is defined as the collection of waste, either by municipal services or similar institutions or by public or private corporations, and their transport to the place of treatment or disposal. It includes the separate collection and transport of waste fractions so as to facilitate recycling and the collection and transport of hazardous waste. Street cleaning is included for the part referring to public litter and collection of garbage from the streets. Excluded are winter services.

3.3   Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste

Treatment of hazardous waste comprises the processes of physical/chemical treatment, thermal treatment, biological treatment, conditioning of wastes, and any other relevant treatment method. Disposal of hazardous waste comprises landfill, containment, underground disposal, dumping at sea, and any other relevant disposal method.

Thermal treatment of hazardous waste refers to any process for the high‑temperature oxidation of gaseous, liquid, or solid hazardous wastes, converting them into gases and incombustible solid residues. The flue gases are released into the atmosphere (with or without recovery of heat and with or without cleaning) and any slag or ash produced is deposited in the landfill. The main technologies used in the incineration of hazardous waste are the rotary kiln, liquid injection, incinerator grates, multiple chamber incinerators, and fluidised bed incinerators. Residues from hazardous waste incineration may themselves be regarded as hazardous waste. The resulting thermal energy may or may not be used for the production of steam, hot water, or electric energy.

Landfill is an activity concerning final disposal of hazardous waste in or on land in a controlled way, which meets specific geological and technical criteria.

Other treatment and disposal of hazardous waste may consist of chemical and physical treatment, containment and underground disposal.

Chemical treatment methods are used both to effect the complete breakdown of hazardous waste into non-toxic gases and, more usually, to modify the chemical properties of the waste, e.g. to reduce water solubility or to neutralise acidity or alkalinity.

Physical treatment of hazardous waste: includes various methods of phase separation and solidification whereby the hazardous waste is fixed in an inert, impervious matrix. Phase separation encompasses the widely used techniques of lagooning, sludge drying in beds, and prolonged storage in tanks, air flotation and various filtration and centrifugation techniques, adsorption/desorption, vacuum, extractive and azeotropic distillation. Solidification or fixation processes, which convert the waste into an insoluble, rock‑hard material, are generally used as pre-treatment prior to landfill disposal. These techniques employ blending the waste with various reactants or organic polymerisation reactions or the mixing of the waste with organic binders.

Containment is the retention of hazardous material in such a way that it is effectively prevented from dispersing into the environment, or is released only at an acceptable level. Containment may occur in specially built containment spaces.

Underground disposal includes temporary storage or final disposal of hazardous wastes underground that meet specific geological and technical criteria.

3.4   Treatment and disposal of non-hazardous waste

Treatment of non-hazardous waste comprises the processes of physical/chemical treatment, incineration of waste, biological treatment, and any other treatment method (composting, recycling, etc.).

Incineration is the thermal treatment of waste during which chemically fixed energy of combusted matters is transformed into thermal energy. Combustible compounds are transformed into combustion gases leaving the system as flue gases. Incombustible inorganic matters remain in the form of slag and fly ash.

Disposal of non-hazardous waste comprises landfill, dumping at sea, and any other disposal method.

3.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

Activities and measures aimed at controlling and measuring the generation and storage of waste, their toxicity, etc.

3.6   Other activities

All other activities and measures aimed at waste management. It includes administration, management, training, information and education activities specific to the class, when they can be separated from other activities related to the same class and from similar activities related to other environmental protection classes.

4 Protection and Remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water

Protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water refers to measures and activities aimed at the prevention of pollutant infiltration, cleaning up of soils and water bodies and the protection of soil from erosion and other physical degradation as well as from salinisation. Monitoring, control of soil and groundwater pollution is included.

Excluded are wastewater management activities (see CEPA 2), as well as activities aimed at the protection of biodiversity and landscape (see CEPA 6).

4.1   Prevention of pollutant infiltration

Activities and measures aimed at the reduction or elimination of polluting substances that may be applied to soil, percolate into groundwater or run-off to surface water. Included are activities related to sealing of soils of industrial plants, installation of catchment for pollutant run-offs and leaks, strengthening of storage facilities and transportation of pollutant products.

4.2   Cleaning up of soil and water bodies

Processes to reduce the quantity of polluting materials in soil and water bodies either in situ or in appropriate installations. It includes soil decontamination at former industrial sites, landfills and other black spots, dredging of pollutants from water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, etc.), the decontamination and cleaning up of surface water following accidental pollution e.g. through collection of pollutants or through application of chemicals, as well as the cleaning up of oil spills on land, inland surface waters and seas – including coastal areas. Excludes the liming of lakes and artificial oxygenation of water bodies (see CEPA 6). Excludes civil protection services.

Activities may consist of: measures for separating, containing and recovering deposits, extraction of buried casks and containers, decanting and re-storage, installation of off-gas and liquid effluent drainage networks, soil washing by means of degasification, pumping of pollutants, removal and treatment of polluted soil, biotechnological methods capable of intervening without affecting the site (use of enzymes, bacteria, etc.), physical chemistry techniques such as pervaporation and extraction using supercritical fluids, injection of neutral gases or bases to stifle internal fermentation, etc.

4.3   Protection of soil from erosion and other physical degradation

Activities and measures aimed at the protection of soil from erosion and other physical degradation (compacting, encrusting, etc.). They may consist of programs intended to restore the protective vegetal cover of soils, construction of anti-erosion walls, etc. Measures may also consist in subsidising agricultural and grazing practices less harmful for soils and water bodies.

Excluded are activities carried out for economic reasons (e.g. agricultural production or protection of settlements against natural hazards such as landslides).

4.4   Prevention and remediation of soil salinity

Activities and measures aimed at the prevention and remediation of soil salinity. Concrete actions will depend on climatic, geological and other country-specific factors. Included are actions to increase groundwater tables, e.g. through increased freshwater infiltration to avoid infiltration of seawater into groundwater bodies, lowering of groundwater tables (when groundwater contains high levels of salts) through long-term re-vegetation programmes, changes in irrigation practices, etc.

Excluded are measures that respond to economic purposes (agricultural production, reclamation of land from the sea, etc.).

4.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

All activities and measures aimed at controlling and measuring the quality and pollution of soils, groundwater and surface water, measuring the extent of soil erosion and salinisation etc. Includes the operation of monitoring systems, inventories of "black spots", maps and databases of groundwater and surface water quality, of soil pollution, erosion and salinity, etc.

4.6   Other activities

All other activities and measures aimed at the protection and remediation of soil, groundwater and surface water. It includes administration, management, training, information and education activities specific to the class, when they can be separated from other activities related to the same class and from similar activities related to other environmental protection classes.

5     NOISE AND VIBRATION ABATEMENT (excluding workplace protection)

Noise and vibration abatement refers to measures and activities aimed at the control, reduction and abatement of industrial and transport noise and vibration. Activities for the abatement of neighbourhood noise (soundproofing of dancing halls, etc.) as well as activities for the abatement of noise in places frequented by the public (swimming pools, etc.), in schools, etc., are included.

Excluded is the abatement of noise and vibration for purposes of protection at the workplace.

5.1   Preventive in-process modifications at the source

Activities and measures aimed at the reduction of noise and vibration from industrial equipment, vehicle motors, aircraft and ships engines, exhaust systems and brakes, or noise level due to tyre/road or wheel/rail surface contact. Includes the adaptation of equipment, vehicles (buses, trucks, or train and power units in the case of rail transport, aircraft and ships) in order to make them less noisy: soundproofing of hoods, brakes, exhaust systems, etc. Includes also plant modifications, specially conceived foundations to absorb vibrations, extra cost for regrouping of buildings and/or of facilities in the interest of noise abatement, special facilities in building construction or reconstruction, equipment and machines conceived or constructed for low noise or vibrations, low noise level flares and burners, etc.

Other preventive activities consist of noise abatement through the modification of surfaces. As noise emissions from motors, engines, exhaust systems and brakes are lowered, those from other sources becomes more important and in particular noise that originates from the contact between tyres and road surfaces. Activities consist of substituting concrete by silent asphalt, multi-layered surfaces, etc.


5.2   Construction of anti noise/vibration facilities

Activities and measures aimed at the installation and management of anti-noise facilities. These may be screens, embankments or hedges. They may consist of covering sections of urban motor ways or railroads. As concerns industrial and vicinity noise they also consist of add-on facilities, covering and soundproofing of machines and piping, fuel regulation systems and sound absorption, noise screens, barriers, soundproofing of buildings, noise protective windows, etc., in order to limit noise perception.

5.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

Activities and measures aimed at controlling the level of noise and vibration: installation and operation of stationary measurement and monitoring sites or mobile equipment in urban areas, observation networks, etc.

5.4   Other activities

All other activities and measures aimed at noise and vibration abatement. It includes administration, management, training, information and education activities specific to the class, when they can be separated from other activities related to the same class and from similar activities related to other classes. It also includes, when separable, traffic management with noise abatement purposes (for example, lowering of speed limits, improvement of traffic flows), introduction of time and geographical restrictions for noisy vehicles, traffic detours at a distance from residential areas, creation of pedestrian areas, creation of construction-free buffer zones, restructuring of modal split (improvement of public transportation, use of bicycles). This covers a potentially large set of administrative measures which raise serious identification problems given their incorporation in integrated programmes of traffic control and urban planning and the difficulty of separating that part of measures and expenditure that, in these programmes, concern noise and vibration abatement from expenditure related to air pollution control, improvement of the living environment or traffic security.

In addition to regulation, other measures may consist of: financial incentives for the production and use of low-noise vehicles, labelling or information programmes for consumers so as to encourage the use of low-noise vehicles and the adoption of quiet driving behaviour.

6     PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY AND LANDSCAPES

Protection of biodiversity and landscape refers to measures and activities aimed at the protection and rehabilitation of fauna and flora species, ecosystems and habitats as well as the protection and rehabilitation of natural and semi-natural landscapes. The separation between ‘biodiversity’ and ‘landscape’ protection may not always be practical. For example, maintaining or establishing certain landscape types, biotopes, eco-zones and related issues (hedgerows, lines of trees to re-establish ‘natural corridors’) have a clear link to biodiversity preservation.

Excluded is the protection and rehabilitation of historic monuments or predominantly built-up landscapes, the control of weed for agricultural purposes as well as the protection of forests against forests fire when this predominantly responds to economic reasons. The establishment and maintenance of green spaces along roads and recreational structures (e.g. gulf courses, other sports facilities) are also excluded.

Actions and expenditure related to urban parks and gardens would not normally be included but may be related in some cases to biodiversity – in such cases the activities and expenditure should be included.

6.1   Protection and rehabilitation of species and habitats

Activities and measures aimed at the conservation, reintroduction or recovery of fauna and flora species, as well as the restoring, rehabilitation and reshaping of damaged habitats for the purpose of strengthening their natural functions. Includes conserving the genetic heritage, re-colonising destroyed ecosystems, placing bans on exploitation, trade, etc. of specific animal and plant species, for protection purposes. Also includes censuses, inventories, databases, creation of gene reserves or banks, improvement of linear infrastructures (e.g., underground passages or bridges for animals at highways or railways, etc.), feeding of the young, management of special natural reserves (botany conservation areas, etc.). Activities may also include the control of fauna and flora to maintain natural balances, including re-introduction of predator species and control of exotic fauna and flora that pose a threat to native fauna, flora and habitats.

Main activities are the management and development of protected areas, whatever the denomination they receive, i.e. areas protected from any economic exploitation or in which the latter is subject to restrictive regulations whose explicit goal is the conservation and protection of habitats. Also included are activities for the restoration of water bodies as aquatic habitats: artificial oxygenation and lime-neutralisation actions. When they have a clear protection of biodiversity purpose, measures and activities related to urban parks and gardens are to be included. Purchase of land for protection of species and habitats purpose is included.

6.2   Protection of natural and semi-natural landscapes

Activities and measures aimed at the protection of natural and semi-natural landscapes to maintain and increase their aesthetic value and their role in biodiversity preservation. Included is the preservation of legally protected natural objects, expenditures incurred for the rehabilitation of abandoned mining and quarrying sites, renaturalisation of river banks, burying of electric lines, maintenance of landscapes that are the result of traditional agricultural practices threatened by prevailing economic conditions, etc. For biodiversity and landscape protection related to agriculture, the identification of specific state aid programmes to farmers may be the only data source available. Protection of forests against forest fires for landscape protection purpose is included.

Excluded are measures taken in order to protect historic monuments, measures to increase aesthetic values for economic purposes (e.g., re-landscaping to increase the value of real estates) as well as protection of predominantly built-up landscapes.

6.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

Measurement, monitoring, analysis activities which are not classified under the preceding items. In principle, inventories of fauna and flora are not covered since they are classified under protection of species.

6.4   Other activities

All other activities and measures aimed at the protection of biodiversity and landscape. It includes administration, training, information and education activities specific to the domain, when they can be separated from other activities related to the same domain and similar activities related to other classes.

7 PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION (excluding external safety)

Protection against radiation refers to activities and measures aimed at the reduction or elimination of the negative consequences of radiation emitted from any source. Included is the handling, transportation and treatment of high level radioactive waste, i.e. waste that, because of its high radionuclide content, requires shielding during normal handling and transportation.

Excluded are activities and measures related to the prevention of technological hazards (e.g. external safety of nuclear power plants), as well as protection measures taken at workplaces. Also excluded are activities related to collection and treatment of low-level radioactive waste (see CEPA 3).

Definition of radioactive waste

Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than the "exempt quantities" established by the competent authorities, and for which no use is foreseen. Radioactive wastes are produced at nuclear power plants and at associated nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as through other uses of radioactive material, for example, the use of radionuclides in hospitals and research establishments. Other important wastes are those from mining and milling of uranium and from the reprocessing of spent fuel.

7.1   Protection of ambient media

Protection of ambient media groups together activities and measures undertaken in order to protect ambient media from radiation. It may consist of protecting measures such as screening, creation of buffer zones, etc.

7.2   Transport and treatment of high level radioactive waste

Any process designed for the transport, conditioning, containment or underground disposal of high level radioactive waste.

Collection and transport of high level radioactive waste consists of the collection of high level radioactive waste, generally by specialised firms and their transport to the place of treatment, conditioning storage and disposal.

Conditioning of high level radioactive waste consists of activities that transform high level radioactive waste into a proper and fit condition for transport and/or storage and/or disposal. Conditioning may occur as part of ISIC/NACE 23 (processing of nuclear fuels) activities.

Containment of high level radioactive waste designates the retention of radioactive waste in such a way that it is effectively prevented from dispersing into the environment, or is released only at an acceptable level. Containment may occur in specially built containment spaces.

Underground disposal of high level radioactive waste is the temporary storage or final disposal of high level radioactive waste in underground sites that meet specific geological and technical criteria.

7.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

Activities aimed at measuring, controlling and monitoring ambient radioactivity and radioactivity due to high level radioactive waste by means of specific equipment, instruments and installations.

7.4   Other activities

All other activities and measures aimed at the protection of ambient media against radiation and transport and treatment of high level radioactive waste. It includes administration, training, information and education activities specific to the domain, when they can be separated from other activities related to the same class and similar activities related to other environmental protection classes.

8     RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Research and development (R&D) comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications (see Frascati manual, OECD 1994) in the field of environmental protection.

 The class regroups all R&D activities and expenditure oriented towards environmental protection: identification and analysis of sources of pollution, mechanisms of dispersion of pollutants in the environment as well as their effects on human beings, the species and the biosphere. This heading covers R&D for the prevention and elimination of all forms of pollution, as well as R&D oriented towards equipment and instruments of pollution measurement and analysis. When separable all R&D activities even when referring to a specific class have to be classified under this position.  

Environmental R&D is further classified in accordance with the 1993 NABS (Nomenclature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes and Budgets, Eurostat 1994).

 Excluded are R&D activities related to the management of natural resources. 

9     Other ENVIRONMENTAL protection activities

Other environmental protection activities refers to all environmental protection activities which take the form of general environmental administration and management activities or training or teaching activities specifically oriented towards environmental protection or which consist of public information, when they are not classified elsewhere in CEPA. It also includes activities leading to indivisible expenditure, as well as activities not elsewhere classified.

9.1   General environmental administration and management

General administration of the environment designates any identifiable activity that is directed at the general support of decisions taken in the context of environmental protection activities, whether by governmental or by non-governmental units.

General administration of the environment, regulation and the like

Any identifiable activity within general government and NPISH units that is directed towards the regulation, administration of the environment and the support of decisions taken in the context of environmental protection activities. When possible such activities should be allocated to other classes. If this is impossible, they should be included under this position of the classification.

Environmental management

Any identifiable activity of corporations that is directed at the general support of decisions taken in the context of environmental protection activities. It includes the preparation of declarations or requests for permission, internal environmental management, environmental certification processes (ISO 14000, EMAS), as well as the recourse to environmental consultancy services. Activities of units specialised in environmental consultancy, supervision and analysis are included. When possible such activities should be allocated to other CEPA classes.

9.2   Education, training and information

Activities that aim at providing general environmental education or training and disseminating environmental information. Included are high school programs, university degrees or special courses specifically aimed at training for environmental protection. Activities such as the production of environmental reports, environmental communication, etc. are also included.

9.3   Activities leading to indivisible expenditure

Environmental protection activities that lead to indivisible expenditure, i.e. which cannot be allocated to any other CEPA class. International financial aid may be a case in point as it may be difficult for the donor countries to attribute international aid to individual classes. If international aid is important in volume and/or of specific political interest, a separate 2-digit heading under CEPA 9 could be adequate for national purposes.

9.4   Activities not elsewhere classified

This position groups together all these environmental protection activities that cannot be classified under other positions of the classification.


Annex 1: Comparison of CEPA 1994 and draft CEPA 2000

1994 CEPA
draft CEPA 2000

1 PROTECTION OF AMBIENT AIR AND CLIMATE

1.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

1.1.1  for the protection of ambient air

1.1.2  for the protection of climate and ozone layer

1.2   Treatment of exhaust gases and ventilation air

1.2.1  for the protection of ambient air

1.2.2  for the protection of climate and ozone layer

1.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

1.4   Other activities 

no changes

2 WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT

2.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

2.2   Sewerage networks

2.3   Wastewater treatment

2.4   Treatment of cooling water

2.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

2.6   Other activities

no changes

3 WASTE MANAGEMENT

3.1   Prevention of pollution through in-process modifications

3.2   Collection and transport

3.3   Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste

3.3.1  Thermal treatment

3.3.2  Landfill

3.3.3  Other treatment and disposal

3.4   Treatment and disposal of non-hazardous waste

3.4.1  Incineration

3.4.2  Landfill

3.4.3  Other treatment and disposal

3.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

3.6   Other activities

no changes
(Note: includes treatment of low-level radioactive waste, composting, street cleaning and sweeping, recycling)

4 PROTECTION OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER

4.1   Prevention of pollutant infiltration

4.2   Decontamination of soils

4.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

4.4   Other activities

4 PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION OF SOIL, GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER

4.1   Prevention of pollutant infiltration

4.2   Cleaning up of soil and water bodies

4.3   Protection of soil from erosion and other physical degradation

4.4   Prevention and remediation of soil salinity

4.5   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

4.6   Other activities

5 NOISE AND VIBRATION ABATEMENT
(excluding workplace protection)

5.1   Noise and vibration from road and rail traffic

5.1.1  preventive in-process modifications at the source

5.1.2  Construction of anti noise/vibration facilities

5.2   Air traffic noise

5.2.1  preventive in-process modifications at the source

5.2.2  Construction of anti noise/vibration facilities

5.3   Industrial process noise and vibration

5.4   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

5.5   Other activities

5 NOISE AND VIBRATION ABATEMENT
(excluding workplace protection)

5.1   Preventive in-process modifications at the source

5.1.1  Road and rail traffic

5.1.2  Air traffic

5.1.3  Industrial and other noise

5.2   Construction of anti noise/vibration facilities

5.2.1  Road and rail traffic

5.2.2  Air traffic

5.2.3  Industrial and other noise

5.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

5.4   Other activities

6 PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY AND LANDSCAPE

6.1   Protection of species

6.2     Protection of landscape and habitats

of which

6.2.1  protection of forests

6.3     Rehabilitation of species populations and habitats

6.4     Restoration and cleaning of water bodies

6.5     Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

6.4   Other activities

6 PROTECTION OF BIODIVERSITY AND LANDSCAPES

6.1   Protection and rehabilitation of species and habitats

6.2   Protection of natural and semi-natural landscapes

6.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

6.4   Other activities

7 PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION
 (excluding nuclear power stations and military installations)

7.1   Protection of ambient media

7.2   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

7.3   Other activities

7 PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION
  (excluding external safety)

7.1   Protection of ambient media

7.2   Transport and treatment of high level radioactive waste

7.3   Measurement, control, laboratories and the like

7.4   Other activities

8 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

8.1   Protection of ambient air and climate

8.1.1  protection of ambient air

8.1.2  protection of atmosphere and climate

8.2   Protection of water

8.3   Waste

8.4   Protection of soil and groundwater

8.5   Abatement of noise and vibration

8.6   Protection of species and habitats

8.7   Protection against radiation

8.8   Other research on the environment

no changes

9 OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACTIVITIES

9.1   General administration of the environment

9.2      Education, training and information

9.3      Activities leading to indivisible expenditure

9.4      Activities not elsewhere classified

OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACTIVITIES

9.1   General environmental administration and management

9.1.1  General administration, regulation and the like

9.1.2  Environmental management

9.2   Education, training and information

9.3   Activities leading to indivisible expenditure

9.4   Activities not elsewhere classified



[1] Participants came from Australia, Botswana, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Indonesia, Italy, Korea, Mexico, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA, Zimbabwe, Eurostat, FAO, IMF, OECD, UNEP, UNSD and World Bank. Most of the 50 participants were from statistical offices, but also other government organisation, academia and international organisations.

[2] In the contrary, the CEPA 2000 removes some minor differences between the CEPA 1994 and new international classifications. For example, the COFOG includes ‘treatment of radioactive waste’(in 05.1.0) whereas the CEPA 1994 included treatment of low level radioactive waste but excluded treatment of high level radioactive waste.