18 June 2001
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS
Meeting of the Expert Group on International Economic
and Social Classifications
New York, 18- 20 June 2001
The occupational classification (NCO-68) presently being used in the country is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations-1968 (ISCO-68). This NCO is being used extensively by various organizations working in the field of employment/unemployment, population census, manpower planning, occasional guidance etc. The code structure of NCO has 5-digit code based on the concept of similarity of the nature of work performed in various occupations. The NCO contains detailed descriptions of about 2500 occupations spelling out the different tasks involved in carrying out various occupations.
The process of revision of NCO-68 has since commenced and the new edition will be patterned after the International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 (ISCO-88).
The information on educational system is maintained through the reports received from the educational agencies/institutions. The data thus collected is compiled and disseminated to various users according to their need. However, wherever, specifically required by international agencies, the statistical data are modified by estimation or otherwise to fulfil their requirement. The link in ISCED levels and our system of education has also been developed.
The classifications which are being used in the Indian National Accounts Statistics(NAS) are Classification of the Functions of Government(COFOG) & Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose(COICOP). These are international classifications recommended in the System of National Accounts(SNA), to be used in the presentation of the NAS. At present in the NAS, 1968 SNA version of the classification are being used after suitably regrouping them as per the data availability. The data required for COFOG is available in the budget documents of the Central/State governments. The information relating to COICOP is derived through the commodity flow approach using the production data and allied information utilised for deriving the income aggregates for the NAS. For some items information is used from the reports of the Consumer Expenditure Survey conducted by the NSSO.
It has not been possible to adopt the Classification of the Purpose of Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households (COPNI) for want of data relating to this institutional sector.
At present in India 'National List of Diseases' based on ICD-10 has been prepared and is being used for medical certification to indicate cause+ of death at hospitals etc. and in a limited way for morbidity statistics in some hospitals.
National Industrial Classification-1987 (NIC-87) has been revised and National Industrial Classification-1998(NIC-98) has been evolved and adopted. One of the significant features of NIC-98 is that it embraces ISIC Rev. 3 structure up to 4-digit level in to-to and extended to 5-digit level to accommodate national requirements. The improvement in classification evolved at any point of time is an on going task and in this regard while forwarding the NIC-1998 to all users, a request was made to follow the new classification extensively and send comments/observations based on their experience of use to improve the future classifications. The revised NIC-1998 is being followed by the NSSO in 55th round of NSS relating to 'Consumer Expenditure, Employment & Unemployment and Non-agricultural Enterprises' and Annual Survey of Industries 1998-99. The Registrar General of India has also followed the revised Classification in the Population Census conducted during February-March, 2001.
In India, Indian Trade Classification (1996 version) has followed a 8-digit classification system of which first 6-digit conform to HS-96, whereas custom tariffs follow 6-digit of HS, thereby providing a harmonisation between the trade and tariff classification data.
However, recently Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBE&C) has developed the national level 8-digit classification taking into consideration the requirements of prominent users viz. Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBE&C), Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence & Statistics (DGCI&S), and Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) based on Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS). The national level 8-digit classification embraces HS structure up to 6-digit level in toto and extended to 8-digit level to accommodate national requirements
CSO evolved and published two versions of product level classification in 1978 and 1988 & 1990 titled 'Common Product Nomenclature' (CPN) on the basis of NIC-1970 and NIC-1987 activity classifications. The Steering Committee on revision of NIC-1987 recommended interalia that CSO should undertake the revision of CPN after the finalisation of NIC-1998. During the same time, at the international level the UNSD prepared and released Central Product Classification (CPC) version 1.0 for the first time for the whole economy i.e. covering transportable as well as construction and services sectors. The development in the field of classification, both at the national and at the international scenario necessitated the need for revision of product level classification.
Recognising the fact that CBE&C, DGCI&S and DGFT are the prominent users of product level classification, it is decided that national level 8-digit classification based on Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS), will be used for the purpose of product classification of transportable goods by other users also.
For non-transportable goods (services sector), CSO has developed product level classification and circulated it for comments. It is eight digited classification. First four digit describe the first four digits of NIC 1998 in toto to indicate the industry origin; the fifth digit accommodates three digited groups of CPC version 1.0 with extensions wherever necessary; the sixth digit represents classes of CPC uniquely; and last two digit represents sub-classes of CPC in addition to the details of the categories under CPN-1990.
Time use surveys are used to provide the data on non market oriented economic activities not included in labour force or in national income accounts . The first Time Use survey of its kind in the country had been conducted in India in six selected states covering about 18, 500 households during the period July 1998 to June 1999. The main objective of the survey was to collect data for properly quantifying the economic contribution of the women in the national economy and to study the gender discrimination in the household activities.
To capture the individual response on the time use pattern, a detailed activity classification was prepared. Basic consideration in preparing the activity classification was that all activities may be categorized into activity pertaining to the System of National Accounts (SNA), In the classification, all the activities are grouped into following categories: (i) Primary Production activities (ii) Secondary activities (iii) Trade, business and services (iv) Household maintenance, management and shopping for own households (v) Care for children, the sick, elderly and disabled for own households (vi) Community services and help to other households (vii) Learning (viii) Social and cultural activities, mass media etc. (ix) Personal care and self maintenance.