UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat (see: http://unfccc.int).
UNSD/UNEP Questionnaire 2004 on Environment Statistics, Air section, marked with " * ".
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision, New York, 2009 (advanced Excel tables).
- Emissions due to other fuel combustion, industrial processes, and other sources.
1990 figure does not include SO2 from energy sector, which constitutes large share of total emissions. The percentage change is calculated based on 1991 data.
1994 figure is considered as an uncharacteristically high in terms of GHG emissions. It was mainly influenced by large-scale extension of Niue's international airport runway, and the major construction and sealing of roads (230 km). The high per capita figure is also due to a very small population base.
- Emissions due to fuel combustion in energy industries, industry, and transport, plus emissions from industrial processes.
Definitions & Technical notes:
Data on emissions of SO2 are usually estimated according to international methodologies on the basis of national statistics on energy, industrial and agricultural production, waste management, etc.
The most widely used methodologies are the 1996 Guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) (see
http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs1.html) which is the basis for reporting to the UNFCCC. The latest revision and update of this guideline is 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (see http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.htm). In earlier years the guidelines produced for the UNECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution were widely used in Europe, and are still used in some countries. The main source of SO2 is burning of fuels, including biomass.
SO2 emissions per capita is calculated by UNSD.
Standardised methods for calculating SO2 emissions from fuel combustion have been available for many years. The amount of SO2 emitted is directly related to the sulphur content of the fossil fuels consumed in the country, and the desulphurisation techniques used, if any. Data on emissions from fuel combustion are considered to be reasonable.