- Includes Monaco.
- Commercial energy consumption is equal to electricity consumption. Negative consumption is due to negligible or no primary electricity production and/or net export.
- Includes San Marino.
- Includes Svalbard and Jan Mayen.
- 2006 data.
- Refers to Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
- 2005 data.
Definitions & Technical notes:
The data on energy consumption and renewable electricity production were compiled by the UNSD Energy Statistics Section for the Energy Statistics Yearbook. For more detailed information on these and other energy consumption and production indicators please refer to the publication.
Energy use intensity data were compiled for the Millennium Development Goals Database by the World Bank Data Development Group using GDP in constant 2005 PPP $. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. For more detailed information see the UNSD Millennium Development Goals Metadata page (http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Metadata.aspx).
Data on consumption refer to "apparent consumption" and are derived from the formula "production + imports - exports - bunkers +/- stock changes." Accordingly, the series on apparent consumption may occasionally represent only an indication of the magnitude of actual (i.e., "measured") gross inland availability. This statement is particularly suitable either when stock data are unavailable or unreliable, or when apparent consumption is a small residual element derived from calculations between large aggregate series and thus is sensitive to small variations in these series. This latter point is also appropriate with respect to the per capita consumption calculations. Where the quantities involved are small, the series tend to exaggerate the effects of such elements as stock additions or withdrawals.
The data on production refer to the first stage of production: accordingly, for electricity, to the gross production of generating plants. This includes the consumption by station auxiliaries and any losses in the transformers that are considered integral parts of the station. Included also is total electric energy produced by pumping installations without deduction of electric energy absorbed by pumping. Production from renewable sources was calculated from the sum of two categories in the Energy Statistics Yearbook: Hydro and Geothermal. Geothermal includes Solar, Tide, Wave, and Wind, when reported. Any electricity production from burning is classified as Thermal; therefore production from burning wastes or fuel wood is not included as a renewable source in this table. However, given available data, burning of wastes and fuel wood has been observed to be a relatively negligible proportion of electricity production in most cases.
Energy consumption and renewable electricity production data are compiled primarily from the UNSD Annual Questionnaire on Energy Statistics and supplemented with data from official national statistical publications and specialized and intergovernmental agencies. Where official data are not available, estimates are made by UNSD based on governmental, professional or commercial materials. Estimates include, but are not limited to, extrapolated data based on partial year information, use of annual trends, trade data based on partner country reports, breakdowns of aggregated data as well as analysis of current energy events and activities. For more information visit: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/energy/yearbook/default.htm.
Energy use intensity data are collected and disseminated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The Energy Statistics Division of the IEA collects, processes, and publishes data and information on energy production, trade, stocks, transformation, consumption, prices and taxes as well as on greenhouse gas emissions. The geographical coverage of the IEA's statistics includes the 30 OECD Member countries and over 100 non-OECD countries worldwide. The data are originally collected by official bodies (often national statistical offices) in OECD Member countries from firms, government agencies and industry organisations, etc., to meet national needs and are then reported to the IEA using special questionnaires to ensure international comparability. Data are also collected for non-OECD countries directly from government and industry contacts and from national publications. The World Bank obtains data on energy use from the IEA electronically, and computes the energy use per GDP (constant 2005 PPP $) series. The World Bank does not make any estimation for missing values of energy use data.
GDP (constant 2005 PPP $) data are based on country reported GDP data adjusted by the World Bank to allow for international comparisons. Conversion to international dollars is done using PPP estimates produced by the World Bank and International Comparison Program (ICP). GDP PPP estimates for countries that did not participate in the 2005 ICP round are estimated. Further details regarding estimation methods are available in the metadata for PPP conversion factors, or in Global Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures: 2005 International Comparison Program, available at http://www.worldbank.org/data/icp.